8.1. KENO: A Monte Carlo Criticality Program
K. B. Bekar, C. Celik, M. E. Dunn,^{1} S. Goluoglu,^{1} D. F. Hollenbach,^{1} N. F. Landers,^{1} C. M.Perfetti,^{1} L. M. Petrie,^{1} B. T. Rearden,^{1}
KENO is a threedimensional (3D) Monte Carlo criticality transport program developed and maintained for use as part of the SCALE Code System. It can be used as part of a sequence or as a standalone program. There are two versions of the code currently supported in SCALE. KENO V.a is the older of the two. KENOVI contains all current KENO V.a features plus a more flexible geometry package known as the SCALE Generalized Geometry Package. The geometry package in KENOVI is capable of modeling any volume that can be constructed using quadratic equations. In addition, such features as geometry intersections, body rotations, hexagonal and dodecahedral arrays, and array boundaries have been included to make the code more flexible.
The simpler geometry features supported by KENO V.a allow for significantly shorter execution times than KENOVI, while the additional geometry features supported in KENOVI make the code appropriate for cases where geometry modeling is not possible with KENO V.a. In particular, KENOVI allows intersections, body truncations with planes, and a much wider variety of geometrical bodies. KENOVI also has the ability to rotate bodies so that volumes no longer must be positioned parallel to a major axis. Hexagonal arrays are available in KENOVI and dohecahedral arrays enable the code to model pebble bed reactors and other systems composed of close packed spheres. The use of array boundaries makes it possible to fill a noncuboidal volume with an array, specifying the boundary where a particle leaves and enters the array.
Except for geometry capabilities, the two versions of KENO share most of the computational capabilities and the input flexibility specific to most SCALE modules. They can both operate in multigroup or continuous energy mode, run as standalone codes, or integrated in computational sequences such as CSAS, TSUNAMI3D, or TRITON. Both versions of the code are continually updated and are written in FORTRAN 90.
Computational capabilities shared by the two versions of KENO include the determination of keffective, neutron lifetime, generation time, energydependent leakages, energy and regiondependent absorptions, fissions, the system meanfreepath, the regiondependent meanfreepath, average neutron energy, flux densities, fission densities, reaction rate tallies, mesh tallies, source convergence diagnostics, problemdependent continuous energy temperature treatments, parallel calculations, restart capabilities, and many more.
^{1}Formerly with Oak Ridge National Laboratory
8.1.1. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many individuals have contributed significantly to the development of KENO. Special recognition is given to G. E. Whitesides, former Director of the Computing Applications Division, who was responsible for the concept and development of the original KENO code. He has also contributed significantly to some of the techniques used in both KENO versions. The late J. T. Thomas offered many ideas that have been implemented in the code. R. M. Westfall, retired from ORNL, provided early consultation, encouragement, and benchmarks for validating the code. The special abilities of J. R. Knight, retired from ORNL, contributed substantially to debugging early versions of the code. S. W. D. Hart was instrumental in implementing continuous energy temperature treatments. W. J. Marshall has provided substantial validation and quality assurance reviews. Appreciation is expressed to C. V. Parks and S. M. Bowman for their support of KENO and the KENO3D visualization tool. The late P. B. Fox provided many of the figures in this document. D. Ilas, B. J. Marshall, and D. E. Mueller consolidated the previous KENO V.a and KENOVI manuals into this present form. The efforts of L. F. Norris (retired), W. C. Carter (retired), S. J. Poarch, D. J. Weaver (retired), S. Y. Walker and R. B. Raney in preparing this document are gratefully acknowledged.
The authors thank the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program for sponsorship of the continuous energy, source convergence diagnostics, and grid geometry features in the current version.
8.1.2. Introduction to KENO
KENO, a functional module in the SCALE system, is a Monte Carlo criticality program used to calculate \(k_{eff}\), fluxes, reaction rates, and other data for threedimensional (3D) systems. Special features include multigroup or continuous energy mode, simplified data input, the ability to specify origins for spherical and cylindrical geometry regions, a P_{n} scattering treatment, and restart capability.
The KENO data input features flexibility in the order of input. The only restrictions are that the sequence identifier, title, and cross section library must be entered first. A large portion of the data has been assigned default values found to be adequate for many problems. This feature enables the user to run a problem with a minimum of input data.
In addition to the features listed above, KENOVI uses the SCALE Generalized Geometry Package (SGGP), which contains a much larger set of geometrical bodies, including cuboids, cylinders, spheres, cones, dodecahedrons, elliptical cylinders, ellipsoids, hoppers, parallelepipeds, planes, rhomboids, and wedges. The code’s flexibility is increased by allowing: intersecting geometry regions; hexagonal, dodecahedral, and cuboidal arrays; bodies and holes rotated to any angle and translated to any position; and a specified array boundary that contains only that portion of the array located inside the boundary. Users should be aware that the added geometry features in KENOVI can result in significantly longer run times than KENO V.a. A KENOVI problem that can be modeled in KENO V.a will typically run about four times as long with KENOVI as it does with KENO V.a. Therefore KENOVI is not a replacement for KENO V.a, but rather an additional version for more complex geometries that could not be modeled previously.
Blocks of input data are entered in the form
READ XXXX** *input_data* ``END XXXX
where XXXX
is the keyword for the type of data being entered. The
types of data entered include parameters, geometry region data, array
definition data, biasing or weighting data, albedo boundary conditions,
starting distribution information, the cross section mixing table, extra
onedimensional (1D) (reaction rate) cross section IDs for special
applications, energy group boundaries for tallying in the continuous
energy mode, a mesh grid for collecting flux moments, and printer plot
information.
A block of data can be omitted unless it is needed or desired for the problem. Within the blocks of data, most of the input is activated by using keywords to override default values.
The treatment of the energy variable can be either multigroup or continuous. Changing the calculation mode from multigroup to continuous energy or vice versa is established by simply changing the cross section library used. All available calculated entities in the multigroup mode can also be calculated in the continuous energy mode. If the calculated entity is energy or group dependent, it is automatically tallied into the appropriate group structure in the continuous energy mode.
The KENO V.a geometry input consists of spheres, hemispheres, cylinders, hemicylinders, and cuboids. Although the origin of the cylinders, hemicylinders, spheres, and hemispheres is zero by default, they may be specified to any value that will allow the geometry to fit in the problem. This feature allows the use of nonconcentric cylindrical and spherical shapes and provides a great deal of freedom in positioning them. Another feature that expands the generality of the code is the ability to place the cut surface of the hemicylinders and hemispheres at any distance between the radius and the origin.
An additional convenience is the availability of an alternative method for specifying the array definition unitlocation data. This method uses FIDOlike options for filling the array.
As mentioned above, KENOVI uses the SGGP, which contains a much more flexible geometry package than the one in KENO V.a. In KENOVI, geometry regions are constructed and processed as sets of quadratic equations. A set of geometric shapes (including all of those used in KENO V.a plus others) is available in KENOVI, as well as the ability to build more complex geometric shapes using sets of quadratic equations. Unlike KENO V.a, KENOVI allows intersections between geometry regions within a unit, and it provides the ability to specify an array boundary that intersects the array.
The most flexible KENO V.a geometry features are the
“ARRAY
ofARRAY
s” and “HOLE
s” capabilities. The
ARRAY
ofARRAY
s option allows the construction of ARRAY
s
from other ARRAY
s. The depth of nesting is limited only by
computer space restrictions. This option greatly simplifies the setup
for ARRAY
s involving different UNIT
s at different spacings.
The HOLE
option allows a UNIT
or an ARRAY
to be placed at
any desired location within a geometry region. The emplaced UNIT
or
ARRAY
cannot intersect any geometry region and must be wholly
contained within a region. As many HOLE
s as will snugly fit
without intersecting can be placed in a region. This option is
especially useful for describing shipping casks and reflectors that have
gaps or other geometrical features. Any number of HOLE
s can be
described in a problem, and HOLE
s can be nested to any depth.
The primary difference between the KENO V.a and KENOVI geometry input
is the methodology used to represent the geometry/material regions in a
unit. KENOVI uses two geometry records (cards) to describe a region.
The first record, called the GEOMETRY record, contains the geometry
(shape
) keyword, region boundary definitions, and any geometry
modification data. Using geometry modification data, regions can be
rotated and translated to any angle and position within a unit. The
second record, the CONTENT
record, contains the MEDIA
keyword;
the material, HOLE
, or ARRAY
ID number; the bias ID number; and
the region definition vector. KENOVI requires that a GLOBAL UNIT
be
specified in all problems, including single unit problems.
In addition to the cuboidal ARRAY
s available in KENO V.a,
hexagonal ARRAY
s and dodecahedral ARRAY
s can be directly
constructed in KENOVI. Also, the ability to specify an ARRAY
boundary that intersects the ARRAY
makes it possible to construct a
lattice in a cylinder using one ARRAY
in KENOVI instead of multiple
ARRAY
s and HOLE
s as would be required in KENO V.a.
Anisotropic scattering is treated by using discrete scattering angles. The angles and associated probabilities are generated in a manner that preserves the moments of the angular scattering distribution for the selected grouptogroup transfer. These moments can be derived from the coefficients of a P_{n} Legendre polynomial expansion. All moments through the 2n  1 moment are preserved for n discrete scattering angles. A onetoone correspondence exists such that n Legendre coefficients yield n moments. The cases of zero and one scattering angle are treated in a special manner. Even when the user specifies multiple scattering angles, KENO can recognize that the distribution is isotropic, and therefore KENO selects from a continuous isotropic distribution. If the user specifies one scattering angle, the code selects the scattering angle from a linear function if it is positive between 1 and +1, and otherwise it performs semicontinuous scattering by picking scattering angle cosines uniformly over some range between 1 and +1. The probability is zero over the rest of the range.
The KENO restart option is easy to activate. Certain changes can be made when a problem is restarted, including using a different random sequence or turning off certain print options such as fluxes or the fissions and absorptions by region.
KENO can also compute angular fluxes and flux moments in multigroup calculations, which are required to compute scattering terms for generation of sensitivity coefficients with the SAMS module or the TSUNAMI3D sequence. Fluxes can also be accumulated in a Cartesian mesh that is superimposed over the userdefined geometry in an automated manner.
KENO can perform Monte Carlo transport calculations concurrently on a number of computational nodes. By introducing a simple masterslave approach via MPI, KENO runs different random walks concurrently on the replicated geometry within the same generation. Fission source and other tallied quantities are gathered at the end of each generation by the master process and are then processed either for final edits or subsequent generations. Code parallel performance is strongly dependent on the size of the problem simulated and the size of the tallied quantities.
8.1.3. KENO Data Guide
KENO may be run stand alone or as part of a SCALE criticality safety or sensitivity and uncertainty analysis sequence. If KENO is run stand alone in the multigroup mode, cross section data can be used from an AMPX [DG02] working format library or from a Monte Carlo format cross section library. If KENO uses an AMPX working format library, a mixing table data block must be entered. If a Monte Carlo format library is used, a mixing table data block is not entered, and the mixtures specified in the KENO geometry description must be consistent with the mixtures created on the Monte Carlo format library file.
If KENO is run stand alone in the continuous energy mode, a mixing table data block must be provided unless the restart option is used.
If KENO is run as part of a SCALE sequence, the mixtures are defined in
the sequence input; therefore, a mixing table data block cannot be entered in
KENO. Furthermore, the mixture numbers used in the KENO geometry
description must correspond to those defined in the composition data
block of the sequence input. To use a cellweighted mixture in
KENO, the keyword CELLMIX=
, followed by a unique mixture
number, must be specified in the cell data input block of the sequence.
Note that cell data are applicable only in the multigroup mode.
The mixture number used in the KENO input is the unique
mixture number immediately following the keyword CELLMIX
. A
cellweighted mixture is available only in SCALE sequences that use
XSDRN to perform a cellweighting calculation using a multigroup cross
section library. Table 8.1.1 through Table 8.1.16 summarize the KENO
input data blocks. These input data blocks are discussed in detail in
the following sections. See CSAS, TRITON, and TSUNAMI manuals for more
details and tips about how KENO is used as part of these sequences.
To run KENO in parallel (standalone execution), the user must
provide the module name with the %
prefix in the input file (e.g., =%kenovi
),
and provide the required arguments in the command line for parallel execution.
The %
prefix is not required if KENO is run as part of a SCALE sequence.
Sequences such as CSAS, TRITON, and TSUNAMI3D automatically
initiate parallel KENO execution if the user provides the required arguments
in the command line while running this code.
Warning
KENO can be run in parallel if SCALE has been built with MPI. SCALE prebuilt binaries disseminated with each SCALE release are usually not MPIenabled binaries.
PARAMETERS: 
Format: If parameters are entered, they must follow the sequence ID, title, and cross section library name See Sect. 8.1.3.3, Sect. 8.1.4.2, and Sect. 8.1.4.3 for further details. 


KEY 
DEFAULT 
DEFINITION 
KEY 
DEFAULT 
DEFINITION 

given 
random number 

1/WTH 
Russian Roulette weight 

no limit 
execution time (min) 

1.0 
CE temperature tolerance 

10 min 
batch time (min) 

10.0 
thermal energy cutoff (eV) 

0.0 
deviation limit 

210 
DBRC upper energy cutoff (eV) 

0.5 
average weight 

0.4 
DBRC lower energy cutoff (eV) 

3.0 
weight for splitting 

0.0 
mesh size of the cubic mesh 

203 
number of generations 

0 
CE TSUNAMI calculation mode 

1000 
number per generation 

1 
number of latent generations for CETSUNAMI 

3 
generations skipped 

0 or 1 
number of of extra 1Ds 

0 
generations between restart 

1000 
blocks for direct access unit 

1 
restart at this generation 

512 
length of direct access block 

252 
number of energy groups for tallying 

NPG 
fission bank positions 

0 
use DBRC for scattering 

NPG+25 
neutron bank positions 

2 
Doppler Broadening method 

0 
extra bank entries 

0 
quadrature order for angular flux moments 

0 
extra bank entries 

0 
order of flux moments 

NO 
all mixture xsecs 

NO 
continuous energy directory file 

NO 
xsec angles & probabilities 

NO 
1D xsecs 

NO 
2D xsecs 

NO 
append restart data 

NO 
2D Pl xsecs 

NO 
adjoint calculation 

NO 
fission spectrum 

YES 
use probability tables 

NO 
extra 1D xsecs 

NO 
use prompt neutron spectrum only 

NO 
print average weight 

YES 
use analytic free gas kernels 

NO 
print unprocessed geometry 

NO 
use unionized mixture xsec 

NO 
albedoxsec array 

NO 
use unionized nuclide xsec 

NO 
print angular fluxes 

NO 
collect fluxes 

NO 
print mesh fluxes 

NO 
collect and print region fluxes 

NO 
print mesh flux angular moments 

YES 
fision densities 

NO 
print mesh volumes 

NO 
fission and absorption per region 

NO 
coordinate transform 

FAR 
FAR by energy 

NO 
print F*(r) 3dmap 

YES 
neutrons per fission 

NO 
save CExsec to restart file 

NO 
compute and print mean free paths 

NO 
fission source convergence diag. 

NO 
selfmultiplication 

NO 
accumulate neutron production 

NO 
matrix keff by location in array 

NO 
fission rate mesh tally 

NO 
cofactor keff by location 

NO 
compute grid fluxes 

NO 
fission production by location 

NO 
compute mesh fluxes 

NO 
matrix keff by unit 

NO 
use mesh for CLUTCH F*(r) calc. 

NO 
cofactor keff by unit 

YES 
produce HTML 

NO 
fission production by unit 

YES 
execute problem 

NO 
matrix keff by array 

YES 
print plots 

NO 
cofactor keff by array 

NO 
debug print 

NO 
fission production by array 

NO 
print neutron tracks 

NO 
matrix keff by hole 

0 
group structure library 

NO 
cofactor keff by hole 

0 
read restart 

NO 
fission production by hole 

0 
write restart 

NO 
MKA at highest level 

16 
scratch 

NO 
MKH at highest level 

0 
working xsecs 

14 
mixed xsecs 

input restart file identifier 


79 
albedo 

output restart file identifier 


80 
weights 

Format:
See Sect. 8.1.3.6 

The sequence FACE CODE ALBEDO NAME is entered as many times as necessary to define the appropriate albedo boundary conditions. 

FACE CODES FOR ENTERING BOUNDARY (ALBEDO) CONDITIONS 

FACE CODE 
DEFINITION 
FACE CODE 
DEFINITION 
FACE CODE 
DEFINITION 
FACE CODE 
DEFINITION 


albedo surface enumeration indicates any \(k^{th}\) face of the boundary shape. Used for both cuboidal and noncuboidal boundary shapes. shapespecific albedo numbers for both KENO V.a and. KENOVI are listed in Table 8.1.6 and Table 8.1.7 

positive X face 
&FC= 
all positive faces 
+YZ= 
positive Y and Z faces 


positive X face 
FC= 
all negative faces 
+ZY= 
positive Y and Z faces 


negative X face 
XYF= 
all X and Y faces 
&YZ= 
positive Y and Z faces 


positive Y face 
XZF= 
all X and Z faces 
&ZY= 
positive Y and Z faces 


positive Y face 
YZF= 
all Y and Z faces 
XY= 
negative X and Y faces 


negative Y face 
+XY= 
positive X and Y faces 
XZ= 
negative X and Z faces 


positive Z face 
+YX= 
positive X and Y faces 
YZ= 
negative Y and Z faces 


positive Z face 
&YX= 
positive X and Y faces 
YXF= 
all X and Y faces 


negative Z face 
&XY= 
positive X and Y faces 
ZXF= 
all X and Z faces 


both X faces 
+XZ= 
positive X and Z faces 
ZYF= 
all Y and Z faces 


both Y faces 
+ZX= 
positive X and Z faces 
YX= 
negative X and Y faces 


all faces of a single or multiple boundary shape(s) 

both Z faces 
&XZ= 
positive X and Z faces 
ZX= 
negative X and Z faces 


all positive faces 
&ZX= 
positive X and Z faces 
ZY= 
negative Y and Z faces 

Above face codes are applicable for only cuboidal boundary shapes (cube or cuboid). 
ALBEDO NAMES AVAILABLE ON THE KENO ALBEDO LIBRARY, FOR USE WITH THE FACE CODES 


ALBEDO NAME 
DESC. 
MODE 
ALBEDO NAME 
DESC. 
MODE 
ALBEDO NAME 
DESC. 
MODE 
DP0H2O DP0H2O DP0 DP0 
12 in. double P0 water differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
CONC4 CON4 CONC4 
4 in. concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
VACUUM VOID VACU VAC 
vacuum condition 
MG and CE 
CONC8 CON8 CONC8 
8 in. concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
SPECULAR MIRROR MIRR SPEC SPE MIR 
mirror image reflection 
MG and CE 

H2O WATER 
12 in. water differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 

PARAFFIN PARA WAX 
12 in. paraffin differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
CONC12 CON12 CONC12 
12 in. concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 

CARBON GRAPHITE C 
200 cm carbon differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
CONC16 CON16 CONC16 
16 in. concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
PERIODIC PERI PER 
periodic boundary condition 
MG and CE 
ETHYLENE POLY CH2 
12 in. polyethylene differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
CONC24 CONC CONC24 
24 in. concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
MG 
WHITE 
White boundary condition 
MG and CE 
ALBEDO SURFACE NUMBERS RELATED TO KENO V.a GEOMETRY SHAPES 


GEOMETRY SHAPE 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
CUBE 
+X 
X 

CUBOID 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+Z 
Z 
CYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

HEMISPHERE 
Radial 
Cut surface 

HEMICYLINDER 
Radial 
Top 
Bottom 
Cut surface 

SPHERE 
Radial 

XCYLINDER 
Radial 
+X 
X 

YCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Y 
Y 

ZCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 
ALBEDO SURFACE NUMBERS RELATED TO KENOVI GEOMETRY BODIES 


GEOMETRY BODY 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
CONE 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

CUBOID 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+Z 
Z 

CYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

DODECAHEDRON 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+X 
X 
X 
+X 
X 
+X 
+X 
X 
ECYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

ELLIPSOID 
Radial 

HEXPRISM 
+X 
X 
+X 
X 
X 
+X 
+Z 
Z 

HOPPER 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+Z 
Z 

PENTAGON 
Y 
+X 
+X 
X 
X 
+Z 
Z 

PLANE 
Surface 

QUADRATIC 
Surface 

RHEXPRISM 
+Y 
Y 
X 
+X 
+X 
X 
+Z 
Z 

RING 
Inner Radius 
Outer Radius 
+Z 
Z 

SPHERE 
Radial 

WEDGE 
Y 
X 
+X 
+Z 
Z 

XCYLINDER 
Radial 
+X 
X 

XPPLANE 
+X 
X 

YCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Y 
Y 

YPPLANE 
+Y 
Y 

ZCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

ZPPLANE 
+Z 
Z 

Surfaces refer to the prerotation surface of the body that occurs in the indicated quadrant. Refer to Fig. 8.1.1 through Fig. 8.1.28 for illustrations of each geometry body. 
ENERGY 
Format: READ ENERGY energy group boundaries END ENERGY Enter upper energy boundary for each group in eV. The last entry is the lower energy boundary of the last group. For N groups, there are N+1 entries. Entries must be in descending order and in units of eV. 
8.1.3.1. Keno input outline
The data input for KENO is outlined below. Default data for KENO have been found to be adequate for many problems. These values should be carefully considered when entering data.
Blocks of input data are entered in the form:
READ XXXX
input_data END XXXX
where XXXX
is the keyword for the type of data being entered. The
keywords that can be used are listed in Table 8.1.17. A minimum of four
characters is required for a keyword, and some keyword names may be as
long as twelve characters (READ PARAMETER
, READ GEOMETRY
, etc.).
Keyword inputs are not case sensitive. Data input is activated by
entering the words READ XXXX
followed by one or more blanks. All
input data pertinent to XXXX
are then entered. Data for XXXX
are
terminated by entering END XXXX
followed by two or more blanks. Note
that multiple READ GRID
blocks are used if multiple grid definitions
are needed.
Type of data 
Keyword 
Parameters 

Geometry 

Biasing 

Boundary conditions 

Start 

Energy 

Array (unit orientation) 

Extra 1D cross sections 

Cross section mixing table^{a} 

Plot^{a} 

Volumes 

Grid geometry 

Reactions 

^{a} MIX and PLT must include a trailing blank, which is considered part of the keyword. 
 Three data records must be entered for every problem:
the SCALE sequence identifier,
the problem title,
and the
END DATA
to terminate the problem.
KENO V.a or KENOVI are typically run as part of CSAS, TRITON, or TSUNAMI sequences, but it may also be run standalone. For standalone KENO execution, the sequence identifier is specified using one line similar to:
=kenovi
A problem title must be entered and must immediately follow the sequence identifier (limit 80 characters, including blanks; extra characters will be discarded). See Sect. 8.1.3.3.
The following guidance generally assumes the user is running KENO stand alone. If KENO is to be run using of the other sequences (e.g., CSAS5), see the appropriate manual section for additional guidance.
READ PARA
parameter_data END PARA
Enter parameter input as needed to describe a problem. If parameter data are desired in standalone KENO calculations (i.e., nonCSAS), they must immediately follow the problem title. Default values are assigned to all parameters. A problem can be run without entering any parameter data if the default values are acceptable.
Parameter data must begin with the words
READ PARA
,READ PARM
, orREAD PARAMETER
. Parameter data may be entered in any order. If a parameter is entered more than once, the last value is used. The wordsEND PARA
orEND PARM
, orEND PARAMETER
terminate the parameter data. See Sect. 8.1.3.3.
(n_{1})…( n_{13}) The following data may be entered in any order. Data not needed to describe the problem may be omitted.
(n_{1}) READ GEOM
all_geometry_region_data END GEOM
Geometry region data must be entered for every problem that is not a restart problem. Geometry data must begin with the words
READ GEOM
orREAD GEOMETRY
. The wordsEND GEOM
orEND GEOMETRY
terminate the geometry region data. See Sect. 8.1.3.4.
(n_{2}) READ ARRA
array_definition_data END ARRA
Enter array definition data as needed to describe the problem. Array definition data define the array size and position units (defined in the geometry data) in a 3D lattice that represents the physical problem being analyzed. Array data must begin with the words
READ ARRA
orREAD ARRAY
and must terminate with the wordsEND ARRA
orEND ARRAY
. See Sect. 8.1.3.5.
(n_{4}) READ BOUN
albedo_boundary_conditions END BOUN
Enter albedo boundary conditions as needed to describe the problem. Albedo data must begin with the words
READ BOUN
,READ BNDS
,READ BOUND
, orREAD BOUNDS
, and it must terminate with the wordsEND BOUN
,ENDS BNDS
,END BOUND
, orEND BOUNDS
. See Sect. 8.1.3.6.
(n_{3}) READ BIAS
biasing_information END BIAS
The biasing_information is used to define the weight given to a neutron surviving Russian roulette. Biasing data must begin with the words
READ BIAS
. The wordsEND BIAS
terminate the biasing data. See Sect. 8.1.3.7.
(n_{5}) READ STAR
starting_distribution_information END STAR
Enter starting information data for starting the initial source neutrons only if a uniform starting distribution is undesirable. Start data must begin with the words
READ STAR
,READ STRT
orREAD START
, and it must terminate with the wordsEND STAR
,END STRT
orEND START
. See Sect. 8.1.3.8.
(n_{6}) READ ENER
energy_group_boundaries END ENER
Enter upper energy boundaries for each neutron energy group to be used for tallying in the continuous energy mode. Energy bin data begin with the words
READ ENER
orREAD ENERGY
and terminate with the wordsEND ENER
orEND ENERGY
. The last entry is the lower energy boundary of the last group. The values must be in descending order. This block is only applicable to continuous energy KENO calculations. See Sect. 8.1.3.12.
(n_{7}) READ MIXT
cross_section_mixing_table END MIXT
Enter a mixing table to define all the mixtures to be used in the problem. The mixing table must begin with the words
READ MIXT
orREAD MIX
and must end with the wordsEND MIXT
orEND MIX
. Do not enter mixing table data if KENO is being executed as a part of a SCALE sequence. See Sect. 8.1.3.10.
(n_{8}) READ X1DS
extra_1D_cross_section_IDs END X1DS
Enter the IDs of any extra 1D cross sections to be used in the problem. These must be available on the mixture cross section library. Extra 1D cross section data must begin with the words
READ X1DS
and terminate with the wordsEND X1DS
. See Sect. 8.1.3.9.
(n_{9}) READ PLOT
plot_data END PLOT
Enter the data needed to provide a 2D character or color plot of a slice through a specified portion of the 3D geometrical representation of the problem. Plot data must begin with the words
READ PLOT
,READ PLT
, orREAD PICT
and terminate with the wordsEND PLOT
,END PLT
, orEND PICT
. See Sect. 8.1.3.11.
(n_{10}) READ VOLUME
volume_data END VOLUME
Enter the data needed to specify the volumes of the geometry data. Volume data must begin with the words
READ VOLUME
and end with the wordsEND VOLUME
. See Sect. 8.1.3.13.
(n_{11}) READ GRID
mesh_grid_data END GRID
Enter the data needed to specify a simple Cartesian grid over either the entire problem or part of the problem geometry for tallying fluxes, moments, fission sources, etc. Grid data may be entered using the keywords
READ GRID
,READ GRIDGEOM
, orREAD GRIDGEOMETRY
, and they are terminated with eitherEND GRID
,END GRIDGEOM
, orEND GRIDGEOMETRY
. Multiple grids may be defined by repeating theREAD GRID
block several times, specifying a different mesh grid identification number for each so defined grid. See Sect. 8.1.3.14 for further information.
(n_{12}) READ REAC
reaction_data END REAC
Enter the data needed to specify filters for the reaction tally calculations. Reaction data must begin with the words
READ REAC
and terminate withEND REAC
. This block is only applicable to calculations in the continuous energy mode. See Sect. 8.1.3.15.
(n_{13}) END DATA must be entered
Terminate the data for the problem.
8.1.3.2. Procedure for data input
For a standalone KENO problem, the first data records must be the
sequence identifier (e.g., =kenovi
or =kenova
) and the title. The next
block of data must be the parameters if they are to be entered. A
problem can be run without entering the parameters, which causes KENO to
use default values for input parameters. The remaining blocks of data
can be entered in any order.
Keywords are deonated using
FIXEDWIDTH
. A keyword is used to identify the data that follow it. When a keyword is used, it must be entered exactly as shown in the data guide. All keywords except those ending with an equal sign must be followed by at least one blank.small_italics correlate data with a program variable name. The actual values are entered in place of the program variable name and are terminated by a blank or a comma.
CAPITAL ITALICS identify general data items. General data items are general classes of data including:
geometry data such as UNIT INITIALIZATION and UNIT NUMBER DEFINITION, GEOMETRY REGION DESCRIPTION, GEOMETRY WORD, MIXTURE NUMBER, BIAS ID, and REGION DIMENSIONS,
albedo data such as FACE CODES and ALBEDO NAMES,
weighting data such as BIAS ID NUMBERS, etc.
The square brackets, [ and ], are used to show that an entry is optional.
The broken line, , is used as a logical “or” symbol to show that the entries to its left and right are alternatives that cannot be used simultaneously.
8.1.3.3. Title and parameter data
A title, a character string, must be entered at the top of the input file. The syntax is:
title a string of characters with a length of up to 80 characters, including blanks.
The PARAMETER
block may contain parameter initializations for those
parameters that need to be changed from their default value. The syntax
for the PARAMETER
block is:
READ PARA
[METER
] p1 … pN END PARA
[METER
]
or
READ PARM
p1 … pN END PARM
p1 … pN are N (N greater than or equal to zero) keyworded parameters that together make up the PARAMETER DATA
The commonly changed parameters are TME
, GEN
, NSK
,
and NPG
. Seldomchanged parameters are NBK
, NFB
,
XNB
, XFB
, WTH
, WTL
, TBA
,
BUG
, TRK
, and LNG
.
The PARAMETER DATA, p1 … pN, consists of one or more of the parameters described below. Some of the parameters are valid either for only multigroup or continuousenergy mode. All below parameters and their values are printed in the Numeric Parameters or Logical Parameters output edits, regardless of whether the parameter is valid in the current transport mode (either multigroup or continous energy).
Floating point parameters
RND
= rndnum input hexadecimal random number, a default value is provided.
TME
= tmax execution time (in minutes) for the problem, default = 0.0 (no limit).Caution
Note that it is only tested at the end of each generation whether the given time limit has been exceeded. The job may be terminated without completing all generations or finalizing all results for output editing if tmax has not been entered carefully.
TBA
= tbtch time allotted for each generation (in minutes), default = 10 minutes. If tbtch is exceeded in any generation, the problem is assumed to be looping. Execution is terminated, and final edits are performed. The problem can loop indefinitely on a computer if the systemdependent routine to interrupt the problem (PULL) is not functional.TBA=
is also used to set the amount of time available for generating the initial starting points.
SIG
= tsigma if entered and > 0.0, this is the standard deviation at which the problem will terminate, default = 0.0, which means do not check sigma.
WTA
= dwtav the default average weight given a neutron that survives Russian roulette, dwtav default = 0.5.
WTH
= wthigh the default value of wthigh is 3.0 and should be changed only if the user has a valid reason to do so. The weight at which splitting occurs is defined to be wthigh x wtavg, where wtavg is the weight given to a neutron that survives Russian roulette.
WTL
= wtlow Russian roulette is played when the weight of a neutron is less than wtlow x wtavg. The wtlow default = 1.0/wthigh.Note
The default values of wthigh and wtlow have been determined to minimize the deviation per unit running time for many problems.
TTL
= temperature_tolerance the continuous energy cross sections must be within the temperature_tolerance (in degrees Kelvin) of the requested temperature for the problem to run. A negative value specifies the use of the closest temperature to that requested. TTL is ignored whenDBX
is nonzero. The default = 1.0.
Note
 If a parameter entered is not valid for the current transport
mode (either multigroup or continuous energy mode), KENO usually ignores this parameter without a warning. Although a parameter is ignored, its userdefined value may appear in Numeric Parameters or Logical Parameters output edits.
THC
= ethermal_cutoff the thermal cutoff energy for bound and
freegas moderators in continuousenergy transport. The cutoff energy
for the thermal neutron transport treatments is represented by a single
energy for all nuclides. If the incident energy is below THC
,
then thermal scattering kinematics are governed by \(S(\alpha, \beta)\)
data or the freegas treatment. If incident energy is greater than THC
,
then the energy of the motion of the nuclei is considered negligible
compared to the neutron energy. See Sect. 8.1.7.2.8 for more details.
The default = 10.0 eV.
DBH
= dbrc_high the energy cutoff (in eV) up to which the Doppler
Broadening Rejection Correction (DBRC) method will be used on nuclides
for which DBRC is enabled, and cross section libraries are available.
DBH is used only in continuousenergy mode. Default = 210.0 eV.
DBL
= dbrc_low the energy cutoff (in eV) down to which DBRC will
be used on nuclides for which DBRC is enabled and cross section
libraries are available. Only used in continuousenergy mode. Default = 0.4 eV.
MSH
= mesh_size length (cm) of one side of a cubic mesh for
tallying fluxes, fission source or fission densities. Default = 0.0.
A positive nonzero value must be entered if one of MFX
, CDS
,
FIS
, or GFX
parameters is defined as YES and KENO grid data
input is not entered. See Sect. 8.1.4.11 for more details.
Integer parameters
GEN
= nba number of generations to be run, default = 203.
NPG
= npb number of neutrons per generation, default = 1000.
NSK
= nskip number of generations (1 through nskip) to be omitted when collecting results, default = 3.
RES
= nrstrt number of generations between writing restart data, default = 0. IfRES
is zero, restart data are not written. When restarting a problem,RES
is defaulted to the value that was used when the restart data block was written. Thus, it must be entered as zero to terminate writing restart data for a restarted problem.
BEG
= nbas beginning generation number, default = 1. IfBEG
is greater than 1, then restart data must be available.BEG
must be 1 greater than the number of generations retrieved from the restart file.NGP = ngp number of neutron energy groups to be used for tallying in continuousenergy mode. If NGP corresponds to a standard SCALE group structure, then the SCALE group structure will be used. If it does not correspond to a standard structure, then an equally spaced in lethargy group structure will be used. If nothing is specified for a continuousenergy problem, the SCALE 252group structure will be used.
Note
In multigroup mode, default energy boundaries used for tallying are always obtained from the multigroup library used by transport, and NGP is defaulted accordingly. In continuousenergy mode, energy group boundaries read from ENERGY block override the default ngp value. NGP value printed in numeric parameters output edit may not reflect this update. The final NGP value is correctly printed in additional information output edit (shown as number of energy groups).
DBR = lusedbrc use the Doppler broadening rejection correction method. See Sect. 8.1.7.2.9 for more details. Used only in continuousenergy mode. Default = 2.
0 = no DBRC
1 = DBRC for ^{238}U only
2 = DBRC for all available nuclides (^{232}Th, ^{234}U, ^{235}U, ^{236}U, ^{238}U, ^{237}Np, ^{239}Pu, ^{240}Pu)
DBX = db_xs_mode option for performing problemdependent or onthefly Doppler Broadening. See Sect. 8.1.7.2.10 for more details. Default = 2.
0 = no problemdependent or onthefly Doppler Broadening
1 = perform problemdependent Doppler Broadening for 1D cross sections only.
2 = perform problemdependent Doppler Broadening for both 1D and 2D (thermal scattering data) cross sections.
CET = ce_tsunami_mode mode for CE TSUNAMI (See TSUNAMI3D manual).
0 = no sensitivity calculations
1 = CLUTCH sensitivity calculation
2 = IFP sensitivity calculation
4 = GEARMC calculation (with CLUTCH only)
5 = GEARMC calculation (with CLUTCH+IFP)
7 = undersampling metric calculation
CFP = number_of_latent_generations number of latent generations used for IFP sensitivity or \(F^{*}\left( r \right)\) calculations (See TSUNAMI3D manual). If CET=1 and CFP= 1 then \(F^{*}\left( r \right)\) is assumed to equal one everywhere. If CET=4 and CFP= 1 then \(F^{*}\left( r \right)\) is assumed to equal zero everywhere.
NQD = nquad quadrature order for angular flux tallies, default = 0, which means do not collect. Angular fluxes are typically only needed for TSUNAMI3D calculations(See TSUNAMI3D manual).
PNM = isctr highest order of flux moment tallies, default = 0. Flux moments are typically only tallied for TSUNAMI3D calculations (See TSUNAMI3D manual).
X1D = numx1d number of extra 1D cross sections, default = 0.
NB8 = nb8 number of blocks allocated for the first directaccess unit, default = 1000.
NL8 = nl8 length of blocks allocated for the first directaccess unit, default = 512.
NBK = nbank number of positions in the neutron bank, default = npb + 25.
XNB = nxnbk number of extra entries in the neutron bank, default = 0.
NFB = nfbnk number of positions in the fission bank, default = npb.
XFB = nxfbk number of extra entries in the fission bank, default = 0.
Alphanumeric parameter data
CEP = lcep key for choosing the calculation mode in stand alone KENO calculations. The parameter is set to the appropriate value by the calling sequence if not stand alone KENO. For stand alone KENO, enter NO for multigroup mode, or enter the continuous energy directory filename for the continuous energy mode. The directory file is the file containing pointers to files significant for the continuous energy run.
FNI = mode_in extra field in the input restart file name [restart_*mode_in*.keno_input] and [restart_*mode_in*.keno_calculated]. The default is an empty field.
FNO = mode_out extra field in the output restart filename [restart_*mode_out*.keno_input] and [restart_*mode_out*.keno_calculated]. The default is an empty field.
Logical parameter data … enter YES or NO
APP = lappend key for appending the restart data, default = NO.
ADJ = nadj key for running adjoint calculation, default = NO. Adjoint cross sections must be available to run an adjoint problem. If LIB= is specified, the cross sections will be adjointed by the code. If XSC= is specified, the cross sections must already be in adjoint order.
PTB = ptb key for using probability tables in the continuous energy mode, default = YES
PNU = lpromptnu key for using promptonly \(\nu\) in the continuous energy mode, default = NO – use total.
FRE = lfree_analytic no longer supported (obsolete parameter).
UUM = lUnionizedMix use unionized mixture cross section, default = NO. Only used in continuousenergy mode. See Sect. 8.1.7.2.3 for more details.
M2U = luseMap2Union store cross sections for each nuclide on a unionized energy grid, default=NO. Only used in the continuous energy mode. See Sect. 8.1.7.2.3 for further details.
CFX = nflx collect fluxes, default = NO.
FLX = nflx key for collecting and printing fluxes, default = NO.
FDN = nfden key for collecting and printing fission densities, default = YES.
FAR = lfa key for generating regiondependent fissions and absorptions for each energy group, default = NO.
GAS = lgas key for printing regiondependent fissions and absorptions by energy group, applicable only if FAR = YES. Default = FAR. GAS = YES prints regiondependent data by energy group. GAS = NO suppresses regiondependent data by energy group.
NUB = nubar calculate the average number of neutrons per fission and the average energy group at which fission occurred, default = YES.
MFP = meanfreepath compute and print the meanfreepath of a neutron by region, default = NO.
SMU = lmult calculate the average selfmultiplication of a unit, default = NO.
MKP = larpos calculate and print matrix keffective by unit location, default = NO. Unit location may also be referred to as array position or position index.
CKP = lckp calculate and print cofactor keffective by unit location, default = NO. Unit location may also be referred to as array position or position index.
FMP = pmapos print fission production matrix by array position, default = NO.
MKU = lunit calculate and print matrix keffective by unit type, default = NO.
CKU = lcku calculate and print cofactor keffective by unit type, default = NO.
FMU = pmunit print fission production matrix by unit type, default = NO.
MKH = lmhole calculate and print matrix keffective by hole number, default = NO.
CKH = lckh calculate and print cofactor keffective by hole number, default = NO.
FMH = pmhole print fission production matrix by hole number, default = NO.
MKA = lmarry calculate and print matrix keffective by array number, default = NO.
CKA = lcka calculate and print cofactor keffective by array number, default = NO.
FMA = pmarry print fission production matrix by array number, default = NO.
HHL = lhhgh collect matrix information by hole number at the highest hole nesting level, default = NO.
HAL = langh collect matrix information by array number at the highest array nesting level, default = NO.
AMX = amx key for printing all mixture cross section data. This is the same as activating XAP, XS1, XS2, PKI, and P1D. If any of these are entered in addition to AMX, then that portion of AMX will be overridden, default = NO.
XAP = prtap key for printing discrete scattering angles and probabilities for the mixture cross sections, default = NO.
XS1 = prtp0 key for printing mixture 1D cross sections, default = NO.
XS2 = prt1 key for printing mixture 2D cross sections, default = NO.
XSL = prtl key for printing mixture 2D P_{L} cross sections, default = NO. The Legendre expansion order L is automatically read from the cross section library.
PKI = prtchi print input fission spectrum, default = NO.
P1D = prtex print extra 1D cross sections, default = NO.
PWT = lpwt print weight average array, default = NO.
PGM = lgeom print unprocessed geometry as it is read, default = NO.
PAX = lcorsp print the arrays defining the correspondence between the cross section energy group structure and the albedo energy group structure, default = NO.
PMF = prtmore print angular fluxes or flux moments if calculated, default = NO.
PMS = print_mesh_flux print mesh fluxes if computed, default = NO.
PMM = print_mesh_moments print the angular moments of the mesh flux, if computed, default = NO.
PMV = print_mesh_volumes print the volume of each mesh interval, if computed. Default = NO.
TFM = ltfm perform coordinate transform for flux moments and angular flux calculations, default = NO.
FST = lprint_FStar create a .3dmap file that contains the F^{*}(r) mesh used by a CETSUNAMI CLUTCH sensitivity calculation.
SCX = lxsecSave save CE cross sections to restart file, default=NO.
HTM = html_output produce HTML formatted output for interactive browsing, sorting, and plotting of results, default = YES.
BUG = ldbug print debug information, default = NO. Enter YES for code debug purposes only.
TRK = ltrk print tracking information, default = NO. Enter YES for code debug purposes only.
RUN = lrun key for determining if the problem is to be executed when data checking is complete, default = YES.
PLT = lplot key for drawing specified plots of the problem geometry, default = YES.
Note
The parameters RUN and PLT can also be entered in the PLOT data. See Sect. 8.1.3.11. It is recommended that these parameters be entered only in the parameter data to ensure that the data printed in the Logical Parameters table is actually performed. If RUN and/or PLT are entered in both the parameter data and plot data, the results vary depending on whether the problem is run (1) stand alone, (2) as a restarted problem, (3) as CSAS with parm=check, or (4) as CSAS without parm=check. These conditions are detailed below.
 KENO standalone and CSAS with PARM=CHECK
The values of RUN and/or PLT entered in KENO parameter data are printed in the Logical Parameters table of the problem output. However, values for RUN and/or PLT entered in the KENO plot data will override the values entered in the parameter data.
 Restarted KENO
The values of RUN and/or PLT printed in the Logical Parameters table of the problem output are the final values from the parent problem unless those values are overridden by values entered in the KENO parameter data of the restarted problem. If the problem is restarted at generation 1, KENO plot data can be entered, and the values for RUN and/or PLT will override the values printed in the Logical Parameters table.
 CSAS Without PARM=CHECK
The values of RUN and/or PLT entered in the KENO parameter data override values entered in the KENO plot data. The values printed in the Logical Parameters table control whether the problem is to be executed and whether a plot is performed.
Parameters that are either Logical or Integer … enter YES or NO, or an integer number
SCD= l_grid_entropy or mp_grid_entropy score Shannon entropy on a grid, and then perform fission source convergence diagnostics(ScnvgDiag), default=YES, default grid ID = 10001. See Sect. 8.1.7.7 for further details.
CDS = lgrid_prod_dens or mp_grid_prod_dens accumulate neutron fissions on a mesh grid either constructed with MSH or defined by KENO grid data input to use as fission source in subsequent MAVRIC/Monaco shielding calculation or for visualization, default = NO.
FIS = lgrid_fis_rate or mp_grid_fis_rate compute fission rates on a mesh grid either constructed with MSH or defined by KENO grid data input, default = NO.
GFX = lgrid_flux or mp_grid_flux compute grid fluxes on a mesh grid either constructed with MSH or defined by KENO grid data input, default = NO.
MFX = lgrid_mat_avg_flux or mp_grid_mat_avg_flux compute mesh fluxes (averaged over the volume of mixtures/materials in each mesh voxel) on a mesh grid either constructed with MSH or defined by KENO grid data input, default = NO.
CGD = lgrid_fstar or mp_grid_fstart compute the F^{*}(r) mesh tally for continuousenergy CLUTCH sensitivity calculations. This mesh is defined with either MSH parameter or KENO grid data, default = NO.
The KENO codes in SCALE versions prior to 6.2 allowed for only one mesh definition in the user input, with either the MSH parameter or the KENO grid data input, and calculation of a single meshbased quantity, such as MFX (mesh fluxes) or CDS (fission source accumulation on a mesh), per KENO simulation. Either of these meshbased quantities can be enabled only by entering MSH=yes or CDS=yes in the parameter input.
Starting with SCALE 6.2, the option to define multiple spatial meshes during a single simulation was implemented in the KENO codes to add flexibility to meshbased quantity calculations. This enabled computing desired quantities on different spatial meshes in a single KENO simulation: a finer mesh can be used for grid fluxes to increase the resolution while overlaying these data on the geometry for a problem with a fullcore reactor model, whereas a coarser mesh can be used for Shannon entropy tally for source convergence diagnostics for the same problem. The new implementation requires that each mesh definition in the KENO grid data input have a unique NUMBER (grid ID), which is used for mesh assignment. Users can assign any spatial grid to meshbased quantities by setting the mesh parameters to this grid NUMBER (e.g., GFX=id1 MFX=id2, etc.)
To support both definition formats (logical entries or integer entries), the parameter processor was redesigned for the parameters SCD, CDS, GFX, MFX and CGD to allow either integer or logical entries. Integer entries are required if multiple meshbased quantities are requested with different meshes. In this case, each integer entry must point to a grid ID specified in any KENO grid data. See Sect. 8.1.4.11 for several examples for the use of these parameter definitions.
KENO codes in SCALE 6.3 introduce a new meshbased quantity, fission rates on a mesh grid, which is controlled by parameter FIS in the parameter block. Like the above parameters, FIS also allows both logical and integer entries.
These entries for all above parameters are detailed below.
SCD= yes enable source convergence diagnostics using the fission source accumulation on the default mesh, which is 5 \(\times\) 5 \(\times\) 5 Cartesian mesh overlaying the whole problem geometry, generated automatically. See Sect. 8.1.7.7.
SCD=id enable source convergence diagnostics using the fission source accumulation on the mesh defined with KENO grid data with grid ID, id.
CGD=id enable a mesh grid defined by the KENO grid data with grid ID, id for CLUTCH \(F^{*}\left( r \right)\) calculations.
MFX=yes compute mesh fluxes on intervals defined by the MSH parameter or by the first specified grid data block.
MFX=id compute mesh fluxes on a mesh grid defined by the KENO grid data with grid ID, id.
CDS=yes accumulate fission sources on intervals defined by MSH or by the first specified grid data block.
CDS=id accumulate fission source on a mesh grid defined by the specified KENO grid data with grid ID, id.
FIS=yes compute fission rates on intervals defined by MSH or by the first specified grid data block.
FIS=id compute fission rates on a mesh grid defined by the KENO grid data with grid ID, id.
GFX=yes compute grid fluxes (fluxes averaged over a voxel volume) on intervals defined by MSH or by the first specified grid data block.
GFX=id compute grid fluxes on a mesh grid defined by the KENO grid data with grid ID, id.
All of the above quantities may be requested in a single input using either the same or different grids. See Sect. 8.1.4.11 for more details.
 I/O Unit Numbers
XSC = xsecs I/O unit number for a Monte Carlo format mixed cross section library. When LIB \(\neq\) 0, default = 14. To read a mixed cross section library from a Monte Carlo format library file or CSASI, XSC must be specified.
ALB = albdo I/O unit number for albedo data, default = 79.
WTS = wts I/O unit number for weights, default = 80.
LIB = lib I/O unit number for AMPX working format cross section library, default = 0.
SKT = skrt I/O unit number for scratch space, default = 16.
RST = rstrt I/O unit number for reading restart data, default = 0. Enter a logical unit number to restart if BEG > 1.
WRS = wstrt I/O unit number for writing restart data, default = 0. A nonzero value must be entered if RES > 0.
GRP = grpbs I/O unit number for an energy group boundary library, default = 77.
 Example:
Default values for the parameters NPG and FLX are overridden by the userdefined values. Code continues calculations with 203 particles per generation, and tallies regionaveraged fluxes in starting after NSK generations skipped.
READ PARAM
NPG=203 FLX=yes
END PARAM
 Example:
NSK has been defined more than once. The last NSK value 50 is used. A cubic Cartesian mesh grid with 3 cm side length is constructed using the extents of the bounding box enclosing the global unit (or outermost geometry). Then, fluxes (averaged over voxel volumes) are tallied on this mesh grid after 50 generations skipped.
READ PARA
NSK=13
MSH=3.0 GFX=yes NSK=50
END PARA
8.1.3.4. Geometry data
The GEOMETRY_ DATA consists of a series of UNIT descriptions, one of which may be the GLOBAL UNIT. The UNIT is the basic geometry piece in KENO and often corresponds to a welldefined physical entity (e.g., a fuel pin). A UNIT, therefore, may consist of multiple material regions. Each UNIT has its own, local coordinate system. The UNITs are assembled to construct the problem’s global geometry for KENO. The GEOMETRY_ DATA must be entered unless the problem is being restarted. See Sect. 8.1.4.6 for detailed examples.
8.1.3.4.1. UNITS
Geometric arrangements in KENO are achieved in a manner similar to using a child’s building blocks. Each building block is called a UNIT. An ARRAY or lattice is constructed by stacking these UNITs. Once an ARRAY or lattice has been constructed, it can be placed in a UNIT by using an ARRAY specification.
Each UNIT in an ARRAY or lattice has its own coordinate system. In KENO V.a, all coordinate systems in all UNITs must have the same orientation. This restriction is removed in KENOVI. All geometry data used in a problem are correlated to the absolute coordinate system by specifying a GLOBAL UNIT. UNITs are constructed of combinations from several allowed shapes or geometric regions. These regions can be placed anywhere within a UNIT. In KENO V.a the regions are oriented along the coordinate system of the UNIT and do not intersect other regions. This means, for example, that a CYLINDER must have its axis parallel to one of the coordinate axes, while a rectangular parallelepiped must have its faces perpendicular to a coordinate axis. The most stringent KENO V.a geometry restriction is that none of the options allow geometry regions to intersect. In KENO V.a, each region in a unit must entirely contain each preceding region. The orientation, intersection, and containment restrictions are eliminated in KENOVI. Fig. 8.1.1 shows some situations that are not allowed in KENO V.a, but are allowed in KENOVI.
For KENO V.a, unless special options are invoked, each geometric region in a UNIT must completely enclose each interior region. Regions may touch at points of tangency and may share faces. See Fig. 8.1.2 for examples of allowable situations.
Special options are provided to circumvent the complete enclosure restriction in KENO V.a or to enhance the basic geometry package in KENOVI. These options include ARRAY and HOLE descriptions. The HOLE option is the simplest of these and allows placing a UNIT anywhere within a region of another UNIT. In KENO V.a, HOLEs are not allowed to intersect the region into which they are placed; this restriction does not apply in KENOVI (see Fig. 8.1.3). In both geometry packages, a HOLE cannot intersect the UNIT boundary. It is recommended that the outer boundary of a UNIT used as a HOLE should not be tangent to or share a boundary with another HOLE or a region of the UNIT containing the HOLE because the code may find that the regions are intersecting due to precision and roundoff. Since a particle must check every region to determine its location within a UNIT, using HOLEs to contain complex sections of a problem may decrease the CPU time needed for the problem in KENOVI. Inclusion of HOLEs increases runtime in KENO V.a, but in many cases cannot be avoided. An arbitrary number of HOLEs can be placed in a region in combination with a series of surrounding regions. The only restrictions on HOLEs are (1) when they are placed in a UNIT, they must be entirely contained within the UNIT, and (2) they cannot intersect other HOLEs or nested ARRAYs. HOLEs in KENO V.a cannot intersect an ARRAY; in KENOVI, the HOLE cannot intersect the ARRAY boundary.
Lattices or arrays are created by stacking UNITs. In KENO V.a, only rectangular parallelepipeds can be organized in an ARRAY. HEXPRISMs and DODECAHEDRONs are allowed in KENOVI to construct triangular pitched or closedpacked dodecahedral ARRAYs, respectively. The adjacent faces of adjacent UNITs stacked in this manner must match exactly. See Sect. 8.1.4.6.4 for additional clarification and Fig. 8.1.4 and Fig. 8.1.5 for typical examples.
The ARRAY option is provided to allow for placing an ARRAY or lattice within a UNIT. In KENOVI, an ARRAY is placed in a UNIT by inserting it directly into a geometry/material region as a content record. In KENO V.a, the ARRAY is placed directly in the unit like a CUBOID: it must be the first region in the UNIT, or the ARRAY elements must intersect with the smaller region. Subsequent regions in the UNIT containing the ARRAY must contain it entirely. In KENOVI, the reverse is true: the region boundary containing the ARRAY must coincide with or be contained within the ARRAY boundary. Therefore, in KENOVI the region boundary becomes the ARRAY boundary, with the problem ignoring any part of the ARRAY outside the boundary. A particle enters or leaves the ARRAY when the region boundary is crossed. In KENO V.a, only one ARRAY can be placed directly in a UNIT. However, multiple ARRAYs can be placed within a UNIT by using HOLEs. When an ARRAY is placed in a UNIT via a HOLE, the UNIT that contains the ARRAY (rather than the ARRAY itself) is placed in the UNIT. ARRAYs of dissimilar ARRAYs can be created by stacking UNITs that contain ARRAYs. In KENOVI, it is possible to place multiple ARRAYs in a UNIT by placing them in separate regions. Also in KENOVI, using HOLEs to insert ARRAYs allows the ARRAYs to be rotated when placed. See Fig. 8.1.6 for an example of an ARRAY composed of UNITs containing HOLEs and ARRAYs.
The method of entering GEOMETRY_DATA in the geometry data block follows:
READ GEOM
GEOMETRY_ DATA END GEOM
8.1.3.4.1.1. UNIT initialization
The description of a UNIT
starts out with the UNIT
INITIALIZATION and is terminated by encountering another UNIT
INITIALIZATION or END GEOM
.
The UNIT
INITIALIZATION has the following format:
[GLOBAL
] UNIT
u
u is the identification number (positive integer) assigned to the
particular UNIT
. It may be used later to reference a UNIT
previously constructed that the user wishes to place in a HOLE
, or
it may be used in an ARRAY
(see below for more details).
GLOBAL
is an attribute that specifies that the respective UNIT
is the most comprehensive UNIT
in the KENO problem to be solved, the
UNIT
that includes all the other UNIT
s and defines the overall
geometric boundaries of the problem. In general, a GLOBAL UNIT
must be entered for each problem.
Note
In KENO V.a, the GLOBAL
specification is optional. If it is used,
it can precede either a UNIT
command or an ARRAY
PLACEMENT_DESCRIPTION. If it is not entered and the problem does
not contain ARRAY
data, UNIT
1 is the default GLOBAL UNIT
.
If there is no GLOBAL UNIT
specified and UNIT
1 is
absent from the geometry description, an error message is printed. If
the geometry description contains an ARRAY
, KENO V.a defaults the
global array to the array referenced by the last ARRAY
PLACEMENT_DESCRIPTION that is not immediately preceded by a unit
description. Otherwise, it is the largest array number specified in
the array data (Sect. 8.1.3.5).
Examples of initiating a UNIT
:
Initiate input data for
UNIT
No. 6.
UNIT
6
Initiate input data for the GLOBAL UNIT which is UNIT No. 4.
GLOBAL UNIT
4
For each UNIT
, the UNIT
’s DESCRIPTION follows the
UNIT
’s INITIALIZATION. The DESCRIPTION is realized by
combining the commands listed below. The basic principles for
constructing a UNIT
are different between KENO V.a and KENOVI. A
brief discussion of these principles, together with a few examples, is
presented at the end of this section following the description of the
basic input used to build the geometry of a UNIT
. The keywords that
may be used to define a UNIT
in KENO are as follows:
shape
COM=
HOLE
ARRAY
REPLICATE
(KENO V.a only)
REFLECTOR
(KENO V.a only)
MEDIA
(KENOVI only)
BOUNDARY
(KENOVI only)
8.1.3.4.1.2. Shape
Shape is a generic keyword used to describe a basic geometric shape that may be used in building the geometry of a particular UNIT. The general format varies between KENO V.a and KENOVI. In KENO V.a, the shape defines a region containing a material, so the user is required to provide both a material and a bias ID. In KENOVI the shape is used strictly as a surface, which is later used to define the monomaterial regions (using the MEDIA card). The user is therefore required to enter a label for this surface so that the shape can be referenced later.
KENO V.a:
shape m b d_{1} … d_{N} [a_{1} …* [a_{M} ]…]
KENOVI:
shape l d_{1} … d_{N} [a_{1} …* [a_{M} ]…]
shape is a generic keyword that describes a basic predefined KENO shape (e.g., CUBOID, CYLINDER) that is used to build the geometry of the UNIT. The predefined shapes differ between KENO V.a and KENOVI. See Sect. 8.1.8.1 for a description of the KENO V.a basic shapes and Sect. 8.1.8.2 for the KENOVI shapes.
m is the mixture number of the material (positive integer) that fills the particular shape in KENO V.a UNIT description. A material number of zero indicates a void region (i.e., no material is present in the volume defined by the shape).
b is the bias identification number (bias ID, a positive integer) assigned to the particular region defined by the shape in the KENO V.a UNIT description.
l is the label (positive integer) assigned to the particular shape in the KENOVI UNIT description. This label is used later to define a certain monomaterial region within the UNIT.
d_{1} … d_{N} represent the N dimensions (floating point numbers) that define the particular shape (e.g., radius of a sphere or cylinder). See Sect. 8.1.8.1 and Sect. 8.1.8.2 for the particular value of N and how each shape is described.
a_{1} … a_{M} are M optional ATTRIBUTES for the shape. The attributes provide additional flexibility in the shape description. The attributes that may be used with either KENO V.a or KENOVI are described below (see shape ATTRIBUTES).
shape ATTRIBUTES
The ATTRIBUTES that can be used to enhance the shape description are CHORD, ORIG[IN], CENTER, and ROTATE (KENOVI only).
The CHORD attribute
This attribute has different formats in KENO V.a and KENOVI. The user will notice that it is more restrictive in KENO V.a. Only the HEMISPHERE and HEMICYLINDER shapes can be CHORDed in KENO V.a, but all 3D shapes may be CHORDed in KENOVI.
KENO V.a: CHORD \(\rho\)
KENOVI: CHORD [+X=x+] [X=x] [+Y=y+] [Y=y] [+Z=z+] [Z=z]
 \(p\) is the distance \(\rho\) from the cut surface to the center of the sphere
or the axis of a hemicylinder. See Fig. 8.1.7 and Fig. 8.1.8. Negative values of \(\rho\) indicate that less than half of the shape is retained, while positive values indicate that more than half of the shape will be retained.
 +X=, X=, +Y=, Y=, +Z=, Z=
are subordinate keywords that define the axis parallel to the chord. The “+” and “” signs are used to define the side of the chord which is included in the volume. A “+” in the keyword indicates that the more positive side of the chord is included in the volume. A “” in the keyword indicates that the more negative side of the chord is included in the volume.
 x+, x, y+, y, z+, z
are the coordinates of the plane perpendicular to the chord. For each chord added to a body, the keyword CHORD must be used, followed by one of the subordinate keywords and its dimension.
In KENO V.a, the CHORD attribute is applicable for only hemispherical and hemicylindrical shapes, not for SPHERE, XCYLINDER, YCYLINDER, CYLINDER, ZCYLINDER, CUBE, or CUBOID.
Fig. 8.1.9 provides two examples of the use of the CHORD option in KENOVI.
The ORIG[IN] attribute
The format is slightly different between KENO V.a and KENOVI. Since the entries in KENOVI are key worded, the user has more flexibility in choosing the order of these entries or in using default values. Only nonzero values must be entered in KENOVI, but all applicable values, whether zero or nonzero, must be entered in KENO V.a.
KENO V.a: ORIG[IN] a b [c]
KENOVI: ORIGIN [X=x_{0}] [Y=y_{0}] [Z=z_{0}]
 \(a\)
is the X coordinate of the origin of a sphere or hemisphere; the X coordinate of the centerline of a Z or Y cylinder or hemicylinder; the Y coordinate of the centerline of an X cylinder or hemicylinder.
 \(b\)
is the Y coordinate of the origin of a sphere or hemisphere; the Y coordinate of the centerline of a Z cylinder or hemicylinder; the Z coordinate of the centerline of an X or Y cylinder or hemicylinder.
 \(c\)
is the Z coordinate of the origin of a sphere or hemisphere; it must be omitted for all cylinders or hemicylinders.
 X=, Y=, Z=
are the subordinate keywords used to define the new position of the origin of the shape. If the a subordinate keyword appears more than once after the ORIGIN keyword, the values are summed. If the new value is zero, the particular coordinate does not need to be specified.
 x_{0}, y_{0}, z_{0}
are the values for the new coordinates where the origin of the shape is to be translated.
The CENTER attribute
This attribute establishes the reference center for the flux moment calculations, which can be useful in TSUNAMI calculations. The syntax for this attribute is:
CENTER center_type [u] [x y z]
 center_type
is the reference center value, as described in Table 8.1.18. The default value is global.
 u
is the UNIT number to be used as a reference center for this region when the center_type is unit.
 x, y, z
are the offset from the point specified by the center_type. The default is 0.0 for all three entries.
center_type 
Reference point 
unit 
Reference is defined as the origin of UNIT unit_number plus the offset defined by x, y, and z. 
global 
Reference is defined as system origini.e., (0,0,0) point of the GLOBAL UNITplus the offset defined by x, y, and z. 
local 
Reference is defined as the origin of the current UNIT plus the offset defined by x, y, and z. 
fuelcenter 
Reference is defined as the center of all fissile material in the system plus the offset defined by x, y, and z. 
wholeunit 
When entered for the first region in a unit, the reference for all regions in the unit are defined as the origin of the current unit plus the offset defined by x, y, and z. 
The ROTATE attribute
This attribute can only be used in the KENOVI input. It allows for the rotation of the shape or HOLE to which it is applied. If ORIGIN and ROTATE data follow the same shape or HOLE record, the shape is always rotated prior to translation, regardless of the order in which the data appear. Fig. 8.1.10 provides an example of the use of the ROTATE option. Its syntax is:
ROTATE [A1=a_{1}] [A2=a_{2}] [A3=a_{3}]
 A1=, A2=, A3=
are subordinate keywords to specify the angles of rotation of the particular shape with respect to the origin of the coordinate system. The Euler Xconvention is used for rotation.
 a_{1}, a_{2}, a_{3}
are the values of the Euler rotation angles in degrees. The default is 0 degrees. If a subordinate keyword appears more than once following the ROTATE keyword, the values are summed.
Examples of shapes:
Specify a hemisphere labeled 10, containing material 2 with a radius of 5.0 cm which contains only material where Z > 2.0 within the sphere centered at the origin, and its origin translated to X=1.0, Y=1.5, and Z=3.0. KENO V.a (no label, but material and bias ID are the first two numerical entries):
HEMISPHERE 2 1 5.0 CHORD 2.0 ORIGIN 1.0 1.5 3.0
or
HEMISPHE+Z 2 1 5.0 CHORD 2.0 ORIGIN 1.0 1.5 3.0
KENOVI (no material; this is to be specified with MEDIA):
SPHERE 10 5.0 CHORD +Z=2.0 ORIGIN X=1.0 Y=1.5 Z=3.0
Specify a hemicylinder labeled 10, containing material 1, having a radius of 5.0 cm and a length extending from Z=2.0 cm to Z=7.0 cm. The hemicylinder has been truncated perpendicular to the X axis at X= 3 such that material 1 does not exist between X= 3 and X= 5. Position the origin of the truncated hemicylinder at X=10 cm and Y=15 cm with respect to the origin of the unit, and rotate it (in KENOVI input) so it is in the YZ plane at X=10 and at a 45\(^{\circ}\) angle with the Y plane.
KENO V.a (no rotation possible, no label):
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 5.0 7.0 2.0 CHORD 3.0 ORIGIN 10.0 15.0
KENOVI (no material; this is to be specified with MEDIA card):
CYLINDER 10 5.0 7.0 2.0 CHORD +X= 3.0 ORIGIN X=10.0 Y=15.0 ROTATE A2= 45
8.1.3.4.1.3. COM=
The keyword COM= signals that a comment is to be read. The optional comment can be placed anywhere within a unit definition. Its syntax is:
COM = delim comment delim
 delim
is the delimiter, which may be any one of ” , ` , * , ^ , or !
 comment
is the comment string, up to 132 characters long.
Example of comment within a UNIT:
COM=”This is a fuel pin”
8.1.3.4.1.4. HOLE
This entry is used to position a UNIT within a surrounding UNIT relative to the origin of the surrounding UNIT. HOLEs may share surfaces with but may not intersect other HOLEs, the BOUNDARY of the UNIT which contains the HOLE, or an ARRAY boundary. In KENOVI, the BOUNDARY record of a UNIT placed in a HOLE may contain more than one geometry label, but all labels must be positive, indicating inside the respective geometry bodies. The syntax for HOLE is:
KENO V.a: HOLE u x y z
KENOVI: HOLE u [a_{1} … [a_{M} ]…]
 u
is the unit previously defined that is to be placed within the HOLE.
 x y z
is the position of the HOLE in the KENO V.a host UNIT.
 a1 … aM
are optional KENOVI ATTRIBUTES for the HOLE. The ATTRIBUTES can be ORIGIN or ROTATE and follow the same syntax previously defined for KENOVI shape ATTRIBUTES. These ATTRIBUTES allow for the translation and/or rotation of the HOLE within the host region.
Examples of HOLE use:
Place UNIT 2 in the surrounding UNIT such that the ORIGIN of UNIT 2 is at X=3, Y=3.5, Z=4 relative to the origin of the surrounding UNIT.
KENO V.a: HOLE 2 3 3.5 4
KENOVI: HOLE 2 ORIGIN X=3.0 Y=3.5 Z=4.0
8.1.3.4.1.5. ARRAY
When used within a UNIT description, this entry provides an ARRAY placement description. In KENO V.a, it always starts a new UNIT and generates a rectangular parallelepiped that fits the outer boundaries of the specified ARRAY. The specified ARRAY is positioned in the UNIT according to the most negative point in the ARRAY with respect to the coordinate system of the surrounding UNIT. Thus, the location of the minimum x, minimum y, and minimum z point in the array is specified in the coordinate system of the UNIT into which the ARRAY is being placed.
In KENOVI, the ARRAY keyword is used to position an ARRAY within a region in a surrounding UNIT relative to the origin of the surrounding UNIT. When the subordinate keyword PLACE is entered, it is followed by six numbers that precisely locate the ARRAY within the surrounding UNIT as shown in the example below. The first three numbers consist of the element in the ARRAY of the UNIT selected to position the ARRAY. The next three numbers consist of the position of the origin of the selected UNIT in the surrounding UNIT. Higher level ARRAY boundaries may intersect lower level ARRAY boundaries as long as they do not intersect HOLEs in the UNITs contained in the ARRAY or in UNITs contained in lower level ARRAYs.
The syntax for the ARRAY card is as follows:
KENO V.a: ARRAY array_id x y z
KENOVI: ARRAY array_id l_{1} … l_{N} [PLACE N_{x} N_{y} N_{z} x y z]
 array_id
is the label that identifies the array to be placed.
 l1 … lN
is the REGION DEFINITION VECTOR. These are previously defined shape labels, and together they define the region in which the array array_id is to be placed. This is used only in KENOVI.
 Nx Ny Nz
are three integers that define the element in the ARRAY of the UNIT selected to position the ARRAY. This is used only in KENOVI.
 x y z
specify the position of the ARRAY in the UNIT.
In KENO V.a, the x, y, and z values are the point where the most negative x, y, and z point of the ARRAY is to be located in the UNIT’s coordinates.
In KENOVI, the x, y, and z values are the point where the origin of the UNIT specified by Nx, Ny, and Nz is to be located in the shape specified by the REGION DEFINITION VECTOR.
Example of ARRAY use:
In KENO V.a, position the most negative point of ARRAY 6 at X = 2.0, Y = 3.0, Z = 4.0 relative to the origin of the containing UNIT.
ARRAY 6 2.0 3.0 4.0
In KENOVI, position instead the origin of UNIT (1,2,3) of ARRAY 6 at X = 2.0, Y = 3.0, Z = 4.0 and specify the ARRAY boundary to be the region that is inside the geometry shapes labeled 10 and 20 and outside the geometry shape labeled 30 used to describe the surrounding UNIT.
ARRAY 6 10 20 30 PLACE 1 2 3 2.0 3.0 4.0
8.1.3.4.1.6. REPLICATE and REFLECTOR
These keywords specific to KENO V.a are used to generate additional geometry regions having the shape of the previous region. The geometry keyword REFLECTOR is a synonym for REPLICATE. The desired weighting functions can be applied to those regions by specifying biasing data as described in Sect. 8.1.3.7. The total thickness generated for each surface is the thickness per region for that surface times the number of regions to be generated, nreg.
The replicate specification is frequently used to generate weighting
regions external to an ARRAY
placement description. Thus an
ARRAY
placement description followed by a REPLICATE
description
would generate regions of a cuboidal shape. A cylindrical reflector
could be generated by following the ARRAY
placement description with
a CYLINDER
and then a REPLICATE
. A HOLE
cannot immediately
follow a REPLICATE
.
Extra regions using default weights can be generated by specifying the
first importance region, imp, to be one that was not defined in the
BIASING INFORMATION provided in a READ BIAS
block. This capability
can be used to generate extra regions for collecting information such as
fluxes, leakage, etc.
Multiple replicate descriptions can be used in any problem. This capability can be used to model different reflector materials of different thicknesses on different faces.
The number of appropriate region dimensions needed for specifying
REPLICATE
is determined by the preceding region. For example, if the
previous region were a SPHERE
, one entry (i.e., t_{1}) would be
required. If the previous region were a CYLINDER
, the first entry,
t_{1}, would be the thickness/region in the radial direction, the
second entry, t_{2}, would the thickness/region in the positive length
direction, the third entry, t_{3}, would be the thickness/region in the
negative length direction, etc. The REPLICATE
specification
requirements for a CUBE
are the same as for a CUBOID
.
Syntax:
REPLICATEREFLECTOR
m b t_{1} … t_{N} nreg
 m
is the number of the material (nonnegative integer) that fills the particular REPLICATE/REFLECTOR region in the UNIT description. A material of zero indicates a void region (i.e., no material is present in the volume defined by the shape).
 b
is the bias identification number (positive integer) assigned to the particular region defined by the
shape
in the KENO V.aUNIT
description. If the specified bias ID is defined in aREAD BIAS
block, the bias ID number will be incremented automatically, increasing one for each additional region up to nreg. t_{1} … t_{N}
represent the thickness (floating point number) per region for each of the N surfaces that define the particular
shape
. If the specified bias ID is one that is defined in theREAD BIAS
block, the region thicknesses should be consistent with the thicknesses used to generate the bias data being used. See Sect. 9.1.2.7. nreg
is the number of regions (integer) to be generated.
Example:
Create five regions of material 4, each being 3 cm thick, outside a cuboid region (a cuboid has six dimensions). The innermost of the five generated regions has a bias id of 2. The following four regions have bias id of 3, 4, 5, and 6.
8.1.3.4.1.7. MEDIA
This card is used in the KENOVI input file to define the location of a
mixture relative to the geometric shape
s in the UNIT
.
Fig. 8.1.11 shows the input for a set of three intersecting
SPHERE
s in a CUBOID
. The total volume data for a region in the
problem may be entered as the last entry on the MEDIA
card by using
the VOL=
keyword immediately followed by the volume in
cm^{3}. The volume entered is the volume of the region in the unit
multiplied by the number of times the unit occurs in the problem minus
any volume excluded from the problem by ARRAY
boundaries and
HOLE
s. The volumes for any or all regions may be entered. If the
volume is entered here, this value will be used even if volumes are also
entered as a file or calculated (See Sect. 8.1.3.13). Volumes not
entered will be determined by the input specified in the VOLUME DATA
block. If no volume is supplied, the KENOVI default volume of 1 will
be used. This only affects volumeaveraged quantities, i.e., not
k_{eff}.
Syntax:
MEDIA
m b l_{1} … l_{N} [VOL
= v]
 m
is the material (positive integer or zero for vacuum) that fills the region defined by
MEDIA
. b
is the bias id for the material sector being defined.
 l_{1} … l_{N}
is the region definition vector (N integers). These are N previously defined shape labels that together define the material sector.
VOL
=is an optional subkeyword used to input the material sector volume.
 v
is the volume in cm^{3} of the material sector defined by the
MEDIA
card.
8.1.3.4.1.8. BOUNDARY
This card is used in KENOVI to define the outer boundary of the
UNIT
. In KENO V.a, the outer boundary of the UNIT
is implicitly
defined by the last shape
in the UNIT
. Each UNIT
must have
one and only one BOUNDARY
card.
Syntax:
BOUNDARY
l1 … lN
 l_{1} … l_{N}
is the
UNIT
BOUNDARY DEFINITION VECTOR (N integers). These are N previously defined shape labels that together define the outer boundary of the UNIT. All entries must be positive for theUNIT
being defined to be used subsequently as aHOLE
.
8.1.3.5. ARRAY Data
The array definition data block is used to define the size of an ARRAY and to position UNITs (defined in the geometry data) in a 3D lattice that represents the ARRAY being described. As many arrays as are necessary can be described in a problem, subject to computer storage limitations. In KENO V.a, only one ARRAY may be placed directly in a UNIT, but as many ARRAYs as are needed may be placed in the UNIT by using HOLEs. In KENOVI, any number of arrays can be placed in any UNIT either directly or indirectly using HOLEs. There is no default global array. If a global array is desired it must be explicitly defined.
The ARRAY definition data is entered as:
READ ARRAY ARRAY DATA END ARRAY
The ARRAY_ DATA consists of ARRAY_PARAMETERS and UNIT_ORIENTATION_DESCRIPTION.
8.1.3.5.1. ARRAY Parameters
The ARRAY parameters that can be used in the definition of an ARRAY are:
ARA=
GBL=
NUX=, NUY=, NUZ=
PRT=
COM=
TYP= (KENOVI only)
8.1.3.5.1.1. ARA=
The ARA= parameter defines a reference number for an ARRAY. It has no default in KENOVI. In KENO V.a, if is missing, the default is 1.
Syntax:
ARA=a
 a
is the reference number for the ARRAY. It has no default in KENOVI. In KENO V.a, if is missing, the default is 1.
8.1.3.5.1.2. GBL=
This is used to input the number of the global array.
Syntax:
GBL=g
 g
is the reference number for the global ARRAY. In KENO V.a it must not be entered more than once. The default is the largest value for a, the reference number for the ARRAY. In KENOVI it is no default value and if entered more than once, the last value is used.
8.1.3.5.1.3. PRT=
This entry is used to enable printing the ARRAY of UNIT numbers.
Syntax:
PRT=print
is a logical constant which defaults to YES, indicating that the ARRAY of UNIT numbers is printed. If the value is NO, then a summary table is printed instead containing the number of times each unit is used in each array.
8.1.3.5.1.4. NUX=, NUY=, NUZ=
These entries are used to input the number of units in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively.
Syntax:
NUX=n_{x} NUY=n_{y} NUZ=n_{z}
 n_{x} n_{y} n_{z}
are the number of units in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. There is no default in KENOVI. In KENO V.a, each of them defaults to 1.
8.1.3.5.1.5. TYPE=
This entry is used to specify the type of ARRAY and is specific to KENOVI, where more than one type of arrays can be used. It cannot be used in KENO V.a.
Syntax:
TYP=atyp
 atyp
type of array (cuboidal or square, hexagonal or triangular, rhexagonal, shexagonal, dodecahedral), default = cuboidal
8.1.3.5.1.6. COM=
This keyword is used to enter a comment.
Syntax:
COM=delim comment delim
 delim
is a delimiter. Acceptable delimiters are “, `, * , ^ , or !.
 comment
is the comment string. Maximum comment length is 132 characters.
8.1.3.5.2. ARRAY orientation data
There are two methods to enter the UNIT numbers constituting an ARRAY: LOOP and FILL.
8.1.3.5.2.1. LOOP Construct
The LOOP
construct resembles a FORTRAN DOloop construct.
The arrangement of UNIT
s may be considered as consisting of a 3D
matrix of UNIT
numbers, with the UNIT
position increasing in the
positive X, Y, and Z directions, respectively.
Syntax:
LOOP
u ix_{1} ix_{2} incx iy_{1} iy_{2} incy iz_{1} iz_{2} incz END
LOOP
 u
is the
UNIT
identification number (a positive integer). ix_{1}
is the starting position in the X direction; ix_{1} must be at least 1 and less than or equal to n_{x} of Sect. 8.1.3.5.1.4.
ix_{2} is the ending position in the X direction; ix_{2} must be at least 1 and less than or equal to nx.
 incx
is the number of
UNIT
s by which increments are made in the positive X direction; incx must be greater than zero and less than or equal to n_{x}. iy_{1}
is the starting position in the Y direction; iy_{1} must be at least 1 and less than or equal to n_{y}.
 iy_{2}
is the ending position in the Y direction; iy_{2} must be at least 1 and less than or equal to n_{y}.
 incy
is the number of UNITs by which increments are made in the positive Y direction; incy must be greater than zero and less than or equal to n_{y}.
 iz_{1}
is the starting position in the Z direction; iz_{1} must be at least 1 and less than or equal to n_{z}.
 iz_{2}
is the ending position in the Z direction;, iz_{2} must be at least 1 and less than or equal to n_{z}.
 incz
is the number of UNITs by which increments are made in the positive Z direction; incz must be greater than zero and less than or equal to n_{z}.
The syntax for ending the LOOP construct is:
END LOOP
The sequence u through incz is repeated until the entire ARRAY is described. If any portion of an ARRAY is defined in a conflicting manner, the last entry to define that portion will determine the ARRAY’s configuration. To use this feature, fill the entire ARRAY with the most relevant UNIT number and superimpose the other UNIT numbers in their proper places. An example showing the use of the LOOP option is given below. This 5 \(\times\) 4 \(\times\) 3 ARRAY of UNITs is a matrix of UNITs that has 5 UNITs stacked in the X direction, 4 UNITs in the Y direction, and 3 UNITs in the Z direction. X increases from left to right, and Y increases from bottom to top. Each Z layer is shown separately.
Given:
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 1
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
Z Layer 1 Z Layer 2 Z Layer 3
The data for this array could be entered using the following entries.
(1) 1 1 5 1 1 4 1 1 3 1 This fills the entire array with 1s.
(2) 2 2 5 2 1 4 3 1 1 1 This loads the four 2s in the first Z layer.
(3) 2 1 5 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 This loads the second and third rows of 2s in the second Z layer.
(4) 2 1 5 2 1 4 3 2 2 1 This loads the desired 2s in the first and fourth rows of the second Z layer.
(5) 3 2 4 1 2 3 1 3 3 1 This loads the 3s in the third Z layer and completes the array data input.
The second layer could have been defined by substituting the following data for entries (3) and (4):
(3) 2 1 5 1 1 4 1 2 2 1 This completely fills the second layer with 2s.
(4) 1 2 4 2 1 4 3 2 2 1 This loads the four 1s in the second layer.
When using the LOOP option, there is no single correct method of entering the data. If a UNIT is improperly positioned in the ARRAY or if some positions in the ARRAY are left undefined, it is often easier to add data to correctly define the ARRAY than to try to correct the existing data.
8.1.3.5.2.2. FILL Construct
The FILL construct enters data by stringing in UNIT numbers starting at X=1, Y=1, Z=1, and varying X, then Y, and then Z to fill the ARRAY. n_{x} x n_{y} x n_{z} entries are required. FIDOlike input options specified in Table 8.1.19 are also available for filling the ARRAY.
Syntax:
FILL
u_{1} … u_{N} {END FILL}
T
u_{1} … u_{N} are the N=n_{x} x n_{y} x n_{z} UNIT
numbers
that make up the ARRAY
The syntax for ending the FILL
construct is
END FILL
An alternative to end the UNIT
data in FILL
is by entering the
letter T
.
Count field 
Option field 
Operand field 
Function 
j 
stores j at the current position in the array 

i 
R 
j 
stores j in the next i positions in the array 
i 
* 
j 
stores j in the next i positions in the array 
i 
$ 
j 
stores j in the next i positions in the array 
F 
j 
fills the remainder of the array with unit number j, starting with the current position in the array 

A 
j 
sets the current position in the array to j 

i 
S 
increments the current position in the array by i (This allows for skipping i positions; i may be positive or negative.) 

i 
Q 
j 
repeats the previous j entries i times (default value of i is 1) 
i 
N 
j 
repeats previous j entries i times, inverting the sequence each time. (default value of i is 1) 
i 
B 
j 
backs i entries. From that position, repeats the previous j entries in reverse order (default value of i is 1) 
i 
I 
j k 
provides the end points j and k, with i entries linearly interpolated between them (i.e., a total of i+2 points). At least one blank must separate j and k. When used for an integer array, the I option should only be used to generate integer stepsi.e., (kj)/(i+1) should be a whole number 
T 
terminates the data reading for the array 
Note
When entering data using the options in this table, the count field and option field must be adjacent with no imbedded blanks. The operand field may be separated from the option field by one or more blanks.
Example: Consider a 3 \(\times\) 3 \(\times\) 1 ARRAY
filled with 8
UNIT
1s and a UNIT
2, as shown below.
1 1 1
1 2 1
1 1 1
The input data to describe this ARRAY
could be entered as follows:
 Option (1)
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 T
This fills the array one position at a time, starting at the lower left corner. The
T
terminates the data.
or
 Option (2)
F1 A5 2 END FILL
The F1 fills the entire array with 1s, the A5 locates the fifth position in the array, and the 2 loads a 2 in that position. The
END FILL
terminates the data.
8.1.3.6. Albedo data
Albedo boundary conditions are entered using a FACE CODE to define where albedo conditions are to be used, and using an ALBEDO NAME to indicate which albedo condition is to be used on that face. The default value for each face is vacuum or void. The default values are overridden only on faces for which other albedo names are specified. Albedo boundary conditions are applied only to the outermost region of a problem (global boundaries). Different albedo options are allowed for different global boundaries, and this may show some differences in both KENO V.a and KENOVI.
In previous SCALE versions, KENO V.a would have allowed the use of albedo boundary conditions to the boundary faces if and only if the outermost geometry region was a cuboid. For noncuboidal outermost geometries, only the void or vacuum albedo option could have been applied. This limitation has been relaxed in SCALE 6.3; KENO V.a now allows some albedo options for noncuboidal boundary shapes.
Unlike KENO V.a, KENOVI allows a combination of geometry shapes to be used to define the boundaries of the global unit. Combinations of more than one geometry shape may result in reentrant surfaces in the model. KENOVI users need to be aware that when a neutron reaches a surface with a vacuum albedo, that neutron exits the model and the history ends. If a model contains features that are reentrant, that is a neutron could exit the model and reenter the model on the other side of an unmodeled region, all neutrons passing through the problem boundary are lost when they reach the unmodeled region. Neutrons are not “transported” across unmodeled areas between reentrant surfaces. It is not possible to create a KENO V.a model with reentrant problem outer boundary surfaces.
The syntax for entering the albedo boundary conditions is as follows. Note
that BODY
is no longer considered as a FACE CODE in the KENOVI albedo
boundary conditions capability, unlike the previous versions of SCALE.
KENO V.a:
READ BOUNDS
fc_{1}=a_{1} [fc_{2}=a_{2}]…
[fc_{N}=a_{N}] END BOUNDS
KENOVI:
READ BOUNDS
[BODY=body_label ] fc_{1}=a_{1} [fc_{2}=a_{2}]… [fc_{N}=a_{N}] END BOUNDS
fc_{1} … fc_{N} are N FACE CODEs, each refers to a single or combination of multiple faces of the global boundaries (faces of the outermost region of a problem). FACE CODEs for different outer shapes are defined in Table 8.1.20.
a_{1} … a_{N} are the ALBEDO NAMEs as defined in Table 8.1.23.
BODY= refers to the body or shape label in the global unit input. This optional parameter is available only for KENOVI. The use of BODY with any face code combination is an optional feature for the problems in which the boundary definition vector of the global unit consists of a single body label (e.g. BOUNDARY 10). However, any face code used to specify an albedo condition on any face of a boundary shape must follow the BODY= parameter when the boundary definition vector of the global unit has more than one boundary labels (e.g., BOUNDARY 10 20 30). In such a case, all albedo boundary condition specifications following the BODY= definition are applied only on the faces of the body given with that BODY= definition.
body_label is the integer label of one of the shapes or bodies listed in the boundary definition vector of the global unit.
Albedo boundary conditions may be entered on each face of the global boundaries multiple times. The boundary condition that applies to the boundary face is the last one entered. If no boundary data are entered or if no albedo boundary condition is applied to a boundary face, then this boundary face is assumed to have a void or vacuum boundary condition. Similarly, albedo boundary conditions may be entered on each face of a boundary body listed in the boundary definition vector of the global unit multiple times. In this KENOVI specific case, the boundary condition that applies to the boundary face of that body is the last one entered.
 Example:
Apply the reflective albedo boundary condition to all faces of a cuboidal outer boundary except the positive X face.
In this sample problem, KENO with the ALL face code first applies the reflective albedo boundary condition to all faces of the outermost geometry. Then, the +XB= face code overrides the albedo type as VACUUM for the positive X face of the cuboidal outer boundary.
KENO V.a:
READ BOUNDS
ALL=mirror +XB=vacuum
END BOUNDS
KENOVI:
read geometry
...
global unit 1
CUBOID 10 ...
...
BOUNDARY 10
end geometry
READ BOUNDS
ALL=mirror +XB=vacuum
END BOUNDS
' following albedo specification is identical with the above one
' READ BOUNDS
' BODY=10 ALL=mirror +XB=vacuum
' END BOUNDS
 Example:
Apply a materialspecific albedo H2O to all faces of the global boundaries except the bottom face of the cuboid, which is one of the boundary shapes. Another materialspecific albedo CONC24 is applied to the bottom face of this cuboid.
This sample problem demonstrates the albedo boundary condition specification for a KENOVI model in which outer boundary of the global unit is defined by a combination of a cuboid and a sphere (CUBOID 10 and SPHERE 20). KENOVI, with this input, first applies a materialspecific albedo, H2O, to all faces of BODY 10. Then, it overrides the boundary condition of the bottom face of the cuboid with another materialspecific albedo, CONC24. Finally, materialspecific albedo H2O is also applied to the spherical face of BODY 20.
KENOVI:
read geometry
...
global unit 1
CUBOID 10 ...
SPHERE 20 ...
...
BOUNDARY 10 20
end geometry
READ BOUNDS
BODY=10 ALL=H2O ZB=CONC24
BODY=20 ALL=H2O
END BOUNDS
' following albedo specification is identical with the above one
' READ BOUNDS
' BODY=10 ALL=H2O
' BODY=20 ALL=H2O
' BODY=10 ZB=CONC24
' END BOUNDS
All available FACE CODEs are described in Table 8.1.20. Note that the listed FACE CODEs are supported by both KENO V.a and KENOVI.
Face codes 
Faces defined by face codes 
ALL= 
All faces of a single or multiple boundary shape(s) 
SURFACE( k )= 
Albedo surface enumeration indicates any \(k^{th}\) face of the boundary shape (Table 8.1.21 and Table 8.1.22 list shapespecific albedo surface numbers) 
+XB= 
Positive X face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&XB= 
Positive X face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
XB= 
Negative X face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+YB= 
Positive Y face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&YB= 
Positive Y face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
YB= 
Negative Y face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+ZB= 
Positive Z face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&ZB= 
Positive Z face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
ZB= 
Negative Z face of a cuboidal boundary shape 
XFC= 
Both positive and negative X faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
YFC= 
Both positive and negative Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
ZFC= 
Both positive and negative Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+FC= 
Positive X, Y, and Z faces faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&FC= 
Positive X, Y, and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
FC= 
Negative X, Y, and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
XYF= 
Positive and negative X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
XZF= 
Positive and negative X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
YZF= 
Positive and negative Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+XY= 
Positive X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+YX= 
Positive X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&XY= 
Positive X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&YZ= 
Positive X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+XZ= 
Positive X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+ZX= 
Positive X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&XZ= 
Positive X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&ZX= 
Positive X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+YZ= 
Positive Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
+ZY= 
Positive Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&YZ= 
Positive Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
&ZY= 
Positive Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
XY= 
Negative X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
XZ= 
Negative X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
YZ= 
Negative Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
YXF= 
Positive and negative X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
ZXF= 
Positive and negative X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
ZYF= 
Positive and negative Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
YX= 
Negative X and Y faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
ZX= 
Negative X and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
ZY= 
Negative Y and Z faces of a cuboidal boundary shape 
Warning
In SCALE 6.3:
Face codes, which are specific to the cuboidal boundary shape, cannot be used with noncuboidal boundary shapes.
SURFACE(..) face code cannot be used together with any cuboidal face codes listed in Table 8.1.20 if the outermost geometry is cube or cuboid.
The ALL face code refers to all faces of the global boundaries.
Unlike the albedo boundary conditions capability in KENO codes of previous SCALE versions, FACE CODE definitions and their use are slightly different in SCALE 6.3.
SURFACE(..)= face code is a valid option for both KENO V.a and KENOVI. SURFACE(..)= face code with a corresponding albedo surface number can be used to apply an albedo boundary condition to the specified surface of any boundary shape (cuboidal or noncuboidal). Albedo surface enumerations for all geometric shapes supported by KENO V.a and KENOVI are listed in Table 8.1.21 and Table 8.1.22, respectively. Note that entering an illegal albedo surface number with SURFACE(..) face code in bounds data input block fails the execution (i.e., SURFACE(2)=… for a sphere, SURFACE(9) for a hexprism, etc.)
The ALL= face code will apply the listed boundary condition to all surfaces of a single boundary shape, or multiple boundary shapes (KENOVI only). It can be used with any boundary shape available in both KENO V.a and KENOVI. If it follows a BODY= definition, then it refers to all the faces of the body given with that BODY= definition (KENOVI only).
All the face codes, which are listed in Table 8.1.20, except ALL= and SURFACE(..), are specific to the cuboidal boundary shape, and they may be applied only to the cuboid or cube boundaries.
GEOMETRY SHAPE 
ALBEDO SURFACE ENUMERATION 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

CUBE 
+X 
X 

CUBOID 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+Z 
Z 
CYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

HEMISPHERE 
Radial 
Cut surface 

HEMICYLINDER 
Radial 
Top 
Bottom 
Cut surface 

SPHERE 
Radial 

XCYLINDER 
Radial 
+X 
X 

YCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Y 
Y 

ZCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 
GEOMETRY BODY 
ALBEDO SURFACE ENUMERATION 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 

CONE 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

CUBOID 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+Z 
Z 

CYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

DODECAHEDRON 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+X 
X 
X 
+X 
X 
+X 
+X 
X 
ECYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

ELLIPSOID 
Radial 

HEXPRISM 
+X 
X 
+X 
X 
X 
+X 
+Z 
Z 

HOPPER 
+X 
X 
+Y 
Y 
+Z 
Z 

PENTAGON 
Y 
+X 
+X 
X 
X 
+Z 
Z 

PLANE 
Surface 

QUADRATIC 
Surface 

RHEXPRISM 
+Y 
Y 
X 
+X 
+X 
X 
+Z 
Z 

RING 
Inner Radius 
Outer Radius 
+Z 
Z 

SPHERE 
Radial 

WEDGE 
Y 
X 
+X 
+Z 
Z 

XCYLINDER 
Radial 
+X 
X 

XPPLANE 
+X 
X 

YCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Y 
Y 

YPPLANE 
+Y 
Y 

ZCYLINDER 
Radial 
+Z 
Z 

ZPPLANE 
+Z 
Z 

Surfaces refer to the prerotation surface of the body that occurs in the indicated quadrant. Refer to Fig. 8.1.1 through Fig. 8.1.28 for illustrations of each geometry body. 
All albedo names available in both KENO codes are given in Table 8.1.23. Table 8.1.23 lists also some materialspecific albedo sets. Care must be exercised when using materialspecific albedo types. These data sets were generated using a real problem, and they implicitly reflect the neutron energy spectrum, materials, and geometry from that model. Where neutron energy spectra, materials, and geometry vary from that model, the materialspecific albedos may give significantly incorrect results. This may be checked by comparing results from a sample of calculations performed with both explicitly modeled reflectors and materialspecific albedos. In general, use of materialspecific albedos is not recommended.
Warning
The user should thoroughly understand materialspecific albedos (e.g., DP0H2O, CON24, etc.) before attempting to use these reflectors. Misapplication of these problemspecific albedo data can cause the code to produce incorrect results without obvious symptoms.
DP0H2O, DPOH2O, DP0, DPO 
12 in. (30.48 cm) double P_{0} water differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
H2O, WATER 
12 in. (30.48 cm) water differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
PARAFFIN, PARA, WAX 
12 in. (30.48 cm) paraffin differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
CARBON, GRAPHITE, C 
78.74 in. (200.00 cm) carbon differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
ETHYLENE, POLY, CH2 
12 in. (30.48 cm) polyethylene differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
CONC4, CON4, CONC4 
4 in. (10.16 cm) concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
CONC8, CON8, CONC8 
8 in. (20.32 cm) concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
CONC12, CON12, CONC12 
12 in. (30.48 cm) concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
CONC16, CON16, CONC16 
16 in. (40.64 cm) concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
CONC24, CON24, CONC24 
24 in. (60.96 cm) concrete differential albedo with 4 incident angles 
VACUUM, VOID 
Vacuum condition 
SPECULAR, MIRROR, REFLECT 
Mirror image reflection 
PERIODIC 
Periodic boundary condition 
WHITE 
White boundary condition 
* Materialspecific albedos (differential albedos) may not be used in continuous energy mode 
Note
Differential albedos (material specific albedos), e.g., H2O and CONC, may not be used in continuous energy calculations. In multigroup mode, none of the differential albedos are allowed for the adjoint transport mode.
Different albedo options are allowed for different global boundaries. If the global boundary is a single cube or cuboids, then any available albedo option is allowed on any face of this cuboidal global boundary. However, if a periodic boundary condition is to be used, then it must be specified on opposing faces simultaneously.
Warning
There is no consistency check for the surfaces on which PERIODIC boundary condition has been specified. It is the user’s responsibility to specify the PERIODIC boundary condition on opposing faces simultaneously.
Albedo options for noncuboidal global boundaries may show some differences in KENO V.a and KENOVI:
KENO V.a:
Albedo boundary conditions other than VACUUM are not allowed if the outermost geometry is either a hemisphere or a hemicylinder.
Materialspecific albedos cannot be applied to the curvilinear faces of the outermost geometry.
MIRROR and PERIODIC boundary conditions are not allowed on the curvilinear faces of the outermost geometry.
Whereas WHITE or VACUUM may be applied to the radial face of a cylinder, any albedo options can be used for the top and bottom faces.
 Example:
Use a 24in. concrete albedo boundary condition on the Z face of the problem and use mirror image reflection on the +X and X faces to represent an infinite linear array on a 2 ft thick concrete pad.
READ BOUNDS
XFC=mirror ZB=CONC24
END BOUNDS
 Example:
A cylinder with arbitrarily chosen length is specularly reflected on the top and bottom faces to create an infinitely long cylinder.
READ BOUNDS
SURFACE(2)=mirror SURFACE(3)=mirror
END BOUNDS
KENOVI:
Any CHORDed surfaces that are global unit boundaries will use the default (VOID) boundary condition, and this cannot be changed. Because KENOVI does not provide any input method to assign a nonvacuum albedo boundary condition to the CHORDed surface(s), this restriction may need to be considered when building the geometry of the global unit.
If the boundary definition vector of the global unit contains only a single body label, then all albedo boundary conditions are allowed on any face of the global boundary.
If the boundary definition vector of the global unit contains multiple body labels and all these body labels are positive numbers (e.g. BOUNDARY 10 20 30), then all albedo boundary conditions may be applied to any of the faces of each body.
If the boundary definition vector of the global unit contains multiple body labels and any of these body labels are negative numbers (e.g. BOUNDARY 10 20 30), then only the VACUUM albedo is allowed on the faces of all bodies.
Caution
No nonvacuum albedo boundary conditions can be applied to a CHORDed surface that is global unit boundary.
 Example:
A cylinder with an arbitrarily chosen length is specularly reflected on the top and bottom faces to create an infinitely long cylinder.
read geometry
...
global unit 1
CYLINDER 10 ...
...
BOUNDARY 10
end geometry
READ BOUNDS
ALL=mirror SURFACE(1)=void
END BOUNDS
' identical boundary condition can be applied with another definition
' READ BOUNDS
' BODY=10 SURFACE(2)=reflective SURFACE(3)=mirror
' END BOUNDS
 Example:
Use a 24 in. concrete albedo boundary condition on the Z face of the problem and use mirror image reflection on the +X and X faces to represent an infinite linear array on a 2 ft thick concrete pad.
read geometry
...
global unit 1
CUBOID 101 ...
...
BOUNDARY 101
end geometry
READ BOUNDS
SURFACE(1)=mirror SURFACE(2)=mirror SURFACE(6)=CON24
END BOUNDS
' identical boundary condition can be applied with another definition
' READ BOUNDS
' BODY=101 XFC=reflective ZB=CONC24
' END BOUNDS
 Example:
Use a 24in. concrete albedo boundary condition on the Z face of a problem with a hexagonal boundary and use mirror image reflection on all side faces of the hexprism to represent an infinite planar array on a 2ftthick concrete pad.
read geometry
...
global unit 1
HEXPRISM 201 ...
...
BOUNDARY 201
end geometry
READ BOUNDS
SURFACE(1)=mirror SURFACE(2)=mirror
SURFACE(3)=mirror SURFACE(4)=mirror
SURFACE(5)=mirror SURFACE(6)=mirror
SURFACE(7)=vacuum SURFACE(8)=conc24
END BOUNDS
' an alternative albedo specification for the same boundary conditions
' READ BOUNDS
' ALL=mirror SURFACE(7)=vacuum SURFACE(8)=con24
' END BOUNDS
'
' an alternative albedo specification for the same boundary conditions
' READ BOUNDS
' BODY=201 ALL=mirror SURFACE(7)=vacuum SURFACE(8)=con24
' END BOUNDS
'
' an alternative albedo specification for the same boundary conditions
' READ BOUNDS
' ALL=mirror
' BODY=201 SURFACE(7)=vacuum SURFACE(8)=con24
' END BOUNDS
'
 Example:
The outer boundary of the global unit consists of a cuboid (body label 10) and a sphere (body label 20). The sphere is large enough to cut the corners of the cuboid leaving most of the cuboid intact. Use a 24 in. concrete albedo boundary condition on the Z face of the cuboid to represent a 2 ft. thick concrete pad. Use the DP0H2O on the other surfaces to represent an infinite water reflector.
read geometry
...
global unit 1
CUBOID 10 ...
SPHERE 20 ...
...
BOUNDARY 10 20
end geometry
READ BOUNDS
BODY=10 ALL=DP0H2O ZB=CONC24
BODY=20 SURFACE(1)=DPOH2O
END BOUNDS
' an alternative albedo specification for the same boundary conditions
' READ BOUNDS
' ALL=DPOH2O
' BODY=10 ZB=CONC24
' END BOUNDS
Note that the ALL face code is used in two different ways in the above example: (1) Used with body 10 to apply DPOH2O albedo to all faces of this body (2) Used without body, which is legitimate for KENOVI, to apply DPOH2O albedo to all faces of both body 10 and 20 (global unit boundaries defined by CUBOID 10 and SPHERE 20).
 Example:
KENO geometry specification allows modeling the same physical problem with different geometry definitions. For some cases, boundary condition specification becomes more critical to represent the same problem with different geometry configurations. Users must be extra cautious when building their model and examine the limitations listed in this section carefully to prevent unexpected results.
This example was designed to demonstrate how ignoring such limitations for albedo boundary condition setup affects results in analysis. In this example, a model of a simplified version of a GODIVA sphere was attempted with three different geometry definitions as shown below.
KENOVI, full GODIVA sphere:
...
READ GEOMETRY
global unit 1
sphere 30 8.75
media 1 1 30
boundary 30
END GEOMETRY
READ BOUNDS
ALL=vacuum
END BOUNDS
KENOVI, half GODIVA sphere defined by combination of a sphere and a cuboid:
...
READ GEOMETRY
global unit 1
sphere 30 8.75
cuboid 40 8.75 0.0 4p8.75
media 1 1 30 40
boundary 30 40
END GEOMETRY
READ BOUNDS
ALL=mirror
BODY=30 surface(1)=void
END BOUNDS
KENOVI, half GODIVA sphere defined by a sphere and a CHORD modifier:
...
READ GEOMETRY
global unit 1
sphere 30 8.75 chord +x=0.0
media 1 1 30
boundary 30
END GEOMETRY
READ BOUNDS
ALL=mirror surface(1)=void
END BOUNDS
The first geometry definition uses only a sphere to define the Godiva sphere. The second sample input uses the combination of a sphere and a cuboid to define a hemisphere and an appropriate boundary condition on each outer boundary to simulate the Godiva sphere. Similarly, in the third sample input, a modified CHORD was used with a sphere to define a hemisphere and an appropriate boundary condition on each outer boundary to simulate the Godiva sphere.
But even if the sample input with the CHORDed surface given above seems correct at first glance, it cannot model the same physical problem as the other two because the albedo boundary condition specification with ALL=MIRROR is not applied to the CHORDed surface. Therefore, that CHORDed sphere models a half GODIVA sphere rather than a full one. Results from these three models, presented in Table 8.1.24, indicate that using code capabilities improperly might result in significant bias in the results.
Model 
keff 
Full sphere 
1.02680 +/ 0.00100 
Half sphere defined by a sphere and a cuboid 
1.02962 +/ 0.00075 
Half sphere defined by a sphere and a CHORD 
0.78745 +/ 0.00078 
Unlike KENO codes in previous versions, in SCALE 6.3, KENO codes print several warning messages to remind the user about such limitations and their potential effects if ignored.
Caution
There is no input method to assign a nonvacuum boundary condition to a CHORDed boundary surface (external boundary). Therefore, KENOVI always applies VACUUM boundary condition to the CHORDed boundary surfaces, and this cannot be changed.
8.1.3.7. Biasing or weighting data
The biasing data block is used (in only multigroup mode) to define the weight that is given to a neutron surviving Russian roulette. The average weight of a neutron that survives Russian roulette, wtavg, is defaulted to dwtav (WTA= in the parameter data [see Sect. 8.1.3.3]) for all BIAS IDs and can be overridden by entering biasing information.
The biasing_information is used to relate a BIAS ID to the desired energydependent values of wtavg. This concept is similar to the way the MIXTURE ID, mat, is related to the macroscopic cross section data.
The weighting functions used in KENO are energydependent values of wtavg that are applicable over a given thickness interval of a material. For example, the weighting function for water is composed of sets of energydependent values of wtavg for 11 intervals, each interval being 3 cm thick. The first set of wtavg’s is for the 0–3 cm interval of water, the second set of wtavg’s is for the 3–6 cm interval of water, etc. The eleventh set of wtavg’s is for the 30–33 cm interval of water.
To input biasing information, a BIAS ID must be assigned to correspond to a set of wtavg. Biasing data can specify a MATERIAL ID from the existing KENO V.a weighting library or from the AUXILIARY DATA input. The materials available from the KENO weighting library are listed in Table 8.1.25.
The biasing_information is entered in one of the following two forms. The first set is said to input the CORRELATION DATA, while the second form is said to input the AUXILIARY DATA.
READ BIAS ID**\ =\ *m ib ie* ``END BIAS
or
READ BIAS WT
[S
]=wttitl id s t_{1} i_{1} g_{1} w_{1,1} …
w_{1,i1xg1} … t_{s} i_{s} g_{s} w_{s,1} … w_{s,isxgs} END BIAS
ID=
specifies that CORRELATION DATA will be entered next.
WT=
or WTS=
specifies that AUXILIARY DATA will be entered
next.
 m
is the identification (material ID) for the material whose weighting function is to be used. A material ID can be chosen from the existing KENO weighting library (Table 8.1.25) or from the auxiliary data input using the second form of the BIAS block as described later. If a material ID appears in both the KENO weighting library and the auxiliary data, the weights from the auxiliary data will be used.
 ib
is the bias ID of the weighting function for the first interval of material m. The geometry record having the bias ID equal to ib will use the groupdependent weights from the first interval of material m.
 ie
is the bias ID of the groupdependent weights from the (ie  ib + 1)th interval of material m.
 wttitl
is an arbitrary title name (12 characters maximum), such as CONCRETE, WATER, SPECIALH2O, etc., to identify the material for which the user is entering data. Embedded blanks are not allowed.
 id
is an identification number (material ID). The value is arbitrary. However, if the data are to be utilized in the problem, this ID must also be used at least once in the first form of the BIAS block.
 s
is the number of sets of group structures for which weights will be read for this ID.
 t_{1}… t_{s}
are s thicknesses of each increment for which weights will be read for this ID.
 i_{1}… i_{s}
are s numbers of increments for which weights will be read for this ID.
 g_{1}… g_{s}
are s numbers of energy groups for which weights will be read.
 w_{1,i1xg1}… w_{s,isxgs}
are s sets of weights, each set containing a number of weights equal to the product of number of increments times the number of groups for that set. The group index varies the fastest.
Material 
Material ID 
Group structure for which weights are available 
Increment ^{a} thickness (cm) 
Total number of increments available 
Concrete 
301 
27 28 56 200 238 252 
5 5 5 5 5 5 
20 20 20 20 20 20 
Paraffin 
400 
27 28 56 200 238 252 
3 3 3 3 3 3 
10 10 10 10 10 10 
Water 
500 
27 28 56 200 238 252 
3 3 3 3 3 3 
10 10 10 10 10 10 
Graphite 
6100 
27 28 56 200 238 252 
20 20 20 20 20 20 
10 10 10 10 10 10 
^{a} Groupdependent weight averages are supplied for each increment of the specified incremental thickness (i.e., for any given material) the first ngp (number of energy groups) weights apply to the first increment of the thickness specified here, the next ngp weights apply to the next increment of that thickness, etc CAUTION–If bias IDs defined in the weighting information data are used in the geometry, the region thickness should be consistent with the incremental thickness of the weighting data in order to avoiid overbiasing or underbiasing. 
Warning
The user should thoroughly understand weighted tracking before attempting to generate and use auxiliary data for biasing. Incorrect weighting can cause the code to produce incorrect results without obvious symptoms.
Caution
1. Each set of AUXILIARY or CORRELATION data must be completely described in conjunction with its keyword. Complete sets of these data can be interspersed in an arbitrary order but data within each set must be entered in the specified order.
2. AUXILIARY DATA: If the same m is specified in more than one set of data, the last set having the group structure used in the problem is the set that will be utilized. When AUXILIARY DATA are entered, CORRELATION DATA must also be entered in order to use the AUXILIARY DATA.
3. CORRELATION DATA: If biasing data define the same bias ID (from the geometry data) more than once, the value that is entered last supersedes previous entries. Be well aware that multiple definitions for the same bias ID can cause erroneous answers due to overbiasing.
Bias data may not be used in continuous energy mode.
Examples
Use the first form of the BIAS block to utilize the water biasing factors in bias IDs 2 through 11. From Table 8.1.25, water has material ID m=500 and has bias parameters for 10 intervals that are each 3 cm thick.
READ BIAS ID
=500 2 11 END BIAS
Use the second form of the
BIAS
block to specify biasing factors forSPECIALWATER
to be used in bias IDs 6 and 7. TheSPECIALWATER
biasing factors have a value of 0.69 for BIAS ID 6 and 0.86 for bias ID 7 in each energy group. Sixteengroup cross sections are being used. Each weighting region is 3.048 cm thick. The material ID is arbitrarily chosen to be 510. Note that the first form of theBIAS
block must be entered to allow the second form of theBIAS
block to be used for BIAS IDs 6 and 7.
READ BIAS WT = SPECIALWATER
510 1 3.048 2 16 16*0.69 16*0.86
ID
=510 6 7 END BIAS
An example of multiple definitions for the same bias ID follows:
READ BIAS ID
=400 2 7 ID
=500 5 7 END BIAS
The data for paraffin (ID
=400) will be used for bias IDs 2, 3, and
4, and the data for water (ID
=500) will be used for bias IDs 5, 6,
and 7. The paraffin data for bias IDs 5, 6, and 7 have been overwritten
by water data.
Multiple definitions for the same bias ID are not necessarily incorrect, but the user should be cautious about using multiple definitions and should ensure that the desired biasing or weighting functions are used in the desired geometry regions.
An example of how the bias ID relates to the energydependent values of weights is given below.
Assume that a paraffin reflector is to be used, and it is desirable to
use the weighting function from the KENO weighting library to minimize
the running time for the problem. Also assume that these weighting
functions are to be used in the volumes defined in the geometry records
having the bias ID (defined on a shape or MEDIA
card for KENO
V.a and KENOVI, respectively) equal to 6, 7, 8, and 9. Correlation
data are then entered and auxiliary data will not be entered.
The biasing data would be:
READ BIAS ID
=400 6 9 END BIAS
The results of these data are
(1) the groupdependent weights for the 0–3 cm interval of paraffin will be used in the volume defined by the geometry region having bias ID= 6.
(2) the groupdependent weights for the 3–6 cm interval of paraffin will be used in the volume defined by the geometry region having bias ID= 7.
(3) the groupdependent weights for the 6–9 cm interval of paraffin will be used in the volume defined by the geometry region having bias ID= 8.
(4) the groupdependent weights for the 9–12 cm interval of paraffin will be used in the volume defined by the geometry region having bias ID= 9.
8.1.3.8. Start data
Special start options are available for controlling the initial neutron distribution. The default starting distribution for a global array is flat over the overall array dimensions, in fissile material only. The default starting distribution for a single unit is flat over the system, in fissile material only. See Table 8.1.26 for the starting distributions available in KENO. The syntax for the START block is:
READ START
p1 …pN END START
p_{1} …p_{N} are N initializations for the parameters listed below.
The starting information that can be entered is given below. Enter only the data necessary to describe the desired starting distribution.
NST =
ntypststart type, default = 0 Table 8.1.26 lists the available options under the heading, “Start type.”
TFX =
tfxthe X coordinate of the point at which neutrons are to be started. Default = 0.0. Use for start types 3, 4, and 6.
TFY =
tfythe Y coordinate of the point at which neutrons are to be started. Default = 0.0. Use for start types 3, 4, and 6.
TFZ =
tfzthe Z coordinate of the point at which neutrons are to be started. Default = 0.0. Use for start types 3, 4, and 6.
NXS =
nbxsthe x index of the unit’s position in the global array. Default = 0. Use for start types 2, 3, and 6.
NYS =
nbysthe y index of the unit’s position in the global array. Default = 0. Use for start types 2, 3, and 6.
NZS =
nbzsthe z index of the unit’s position in the global array. Default = 0. Use for start types 2, 3, and 6.
KFS =
kfisthe mixture whose fission spectrum is to be used for starting neutrons that are not in a fissionable medium. Defaulted to the fissionable mixture having the smallest mixture number. Available for start types 3, 4, and 6.
LNU =
lfinthe final neutron to be started at a point. Default = 0. Each lfin should be greater than zero, and each successive lfin should be greater than the previous one. Use only for start type 6.
NBX =
nboxstthe unit in which neutrons will be started. Default = 0. Use for start types 4 and 5.
FCT =
fractthe fraction of neutrons that will be started as a spike or the relative fraction of each segment when using to specify a segmented distribution in z. Default = 0. Use for start type 2 and type 8.
XSM =
xsmthe X dimension of the cuboid in which the neutrons will be started. Default = 0.0. For an array problem, XSM is defaulted to the minimum X coordinate of the global array. If the outermost geometry is a cube or cuboid, then XSM is defaulted to the minimum X coordinate of this cuboid. Use for start types 0, 1, 2, 7, and 8.
XSP =
xspthe +X dimension of the cuboid in which the neutrons will be started. Default = 0.0. For an array problem, XSP is defaulted to the maximum X coordinate of the global array. If the outermost geometry is a cube or cuboid, then XSP is defaulted to the maximum X coordinate of this cuboid. Use for start types 0, 1, 2, 7, and 8.
YSM =
ysmthe Y dimension of the cuboid in which the neutrons will be started. Default = 0.0. For an array problem, YSM is defaulted to the minimum Y coordinate of the global array. If the outermost geometry is a cube or cuboid, then YSM is defaulted to the minimum Y coordinate of this cuboid. Use for start types 0, 1, 2, 7, and 8.
YSP =
yspthe +Y dimension of the cuboid in which the neutrons will be started. Default = 0.0. For an array problem, YSP is defaulted to the maximum Y coordinate of the global array. If the outermost geometry is a cube or cuboid, then YSP is defaulted to the maximum Y coordinate of this cuboid. Use for start types 0, 1, 2, 7, and 8.
ZSM =
zsmthe Z dimension of the cuboid in which the neutrons will be started. Default = 0.0 for only start types 0, 1, 2, and 7. For an array problem, ZSM is defaulted to the minimum Z coordinate of the global array. If the outermost geometry is a cube or cuboid, then ZSM is defaulted to the minimum Z coordinate of this cuboid. Use for start types 0, 1, 2, 7, and 8.
ZSP =
zspthe +Z dimension of the cuboid in which the neutrons will be started. Default = 0.0 for only start types 0, 1, 2, and 7. For an array problem, ZSP is defaulted to the maximum Z coordinate of the global array. If the outermost geometry is a cube or cuboid, then ZSP is defaulted to the minimum Z coordinate of this cuboid. Use for start types 0, 1, 2, 7, and 8.
RFL =
rflkeyNo longer supported (obsolete parameter).
PS6 =
lprt6the key for printing start type 6 input data. If the key is YES, then start type 6 data are printed. If it is NO, then start type 6 data are not printed. Enter YES or NO. Default = NO. Available for start type 6.
PSP =
lpstpthe key for printing the neutron starting points using the tracking format. If the key is YES, then print the neutron starting points. If it is NO, then do not print the starting points. Enter YES or NO. Default = NO. Available for all start types.
RDU =
rduthe file from which ASCII start data are to be read for start type 6.
WS6
= ws6the file to which ASCII start data are written. Available for all start types.
MSS
= filename.mslthe file from which ASCII start data are to be read. filename may include a valid pathname. Available for start type 9.
Note
All start types can write the initial neutron starting points at the last generation to an ASCII start data file specified by WS6. However, only start type 6 can read starting data from an ASCII start data file specified by RDU. The ASCII start data file format is described in Sect. 8.1.3.8.1.
Start type 
Required data 
Optional data 
Starting distribution 
0 
None 
NST XSM XSP YSM YSP ZSM ZSP PSP WS6 RFL ^{a} 
Uniform throughout fissile material within the volume defined by (1) the outer region of a single unit, (2) the boundary of the global array, or (3) a cuboid specified by XSM, XSP, YSM, YSP, ZSM, and ZSP. 
1 
NST 
XSM XSP YSM YSP ZSM ZSP PSP WS6 RFL ^{a} 
The starting points are chosen according to a cosine distribution throughout the volume of a cuboid defined by XSM, XSP, YSM, YSP, ZSM, and ZSP. Points that are not in fissile material are discarded. 
2 
NST NXS NYS NZS FCT 
XSM XSP YSM YSP ZSM ZSP PSP WS6 RFL ^{a} 
An arbitrary fraction (FCT) of neutrons are started uniformly in the unit located at position NXS, NYS, NZS in the global array. The remainder of the neutrons is started in fissile material, from points chosen from a cosine distribution throughout the volume of a cuboid defined by XSM, XSP, YSM, YSP, ZSM, ZSP. 
3 
NST TFX TFY TFZ NXS NYS NZS 
KFS PSP WS6 
All neutrons are started at position TFX, TFY, TFZ within the unit located at position NXS, NYS, NZS in the global array. 
4 
NST TFX TFY TFZ NBX 
KFS PSP WS6 
All neutrons are started at position TFX, TFY, TFZ within units NBX in the global array. 
5 
NST NBX 
PSP WS6 
Neutrons are started uniformly in fissile material in units NBX in the global array. 
6 
NST TFX TFY TFZ LNU ^{b} 
NXS NYS NZS KFS PS6 PSP RDU ^{c} WS6 
The starting distribution is arbitrarily input. LNU is the final neutron to be started at a point TFX, TFY, TFZ relative to the global coordinate system or at a point TFX, TFY, TFZ, relative to the unit located at the global array position NXS, NYS, NZS. 
7 
XSM XSP YSM YSP ZSM ZSP PSP WS6 
The starting points are chosen according to a flat distribution in the X and Ydimensions and a (1.0  cos(z))^{2} distribution in the Zdimension throughout the volume of a cuboid defined by XSM, XSP, YSM, YSP, ZSM, and ZSP. Points that are not in fissile material are discarded. 

8 
NST ZSM ZSP FCT 
XSM XSP YSM YSP PSP WS6 
Neutrons are started with flat distribution in X and Y, and a segmented distribution in Z, with the XY limits defined by XSM, XSP, YSM, YSP and the relative fraction in ZSPZSM defined by FCT. FCT must be the last entry for each segment. 
9 
NST MSS 
Mesh source from Sourcerer ^{d}. The starting distribution is read from a previously created mesh source file declared with MSS=filename.msl, where filename may include a valid pathname. 

^{a} RFL parameter is no longer supported (obsolete parameter) ^{b} When entering data for start 6, LNU must be the last entry for each set of data, and the LNU in each successive set of data must be larger than the previous value of LNU. A set of data consists of required and optional data. ^{c} Starting points can be read from either a single or multiple ASCII start data file(s) specified with RDU. Each set of data with RDU must be followed by LNU that controls the number of starting points read from each file. Starting points read from an ASCII start data file can be also combined with any set of starting data specified with TFX/TFY/TFZ and/or NXS/NYS/NZS. ^{d} Sourcerer sequence has temporarily been removed from SCALE 6.3 because its design relied on legacy SCALE components. A new development has been in progress to redesign Sourcerer capability as a new START data type for both KENO and Shift transport codes, which will be available in next SCALE release. 
Warning
Start data input block does not allow multiple start types defined together. Both KENO V.a and KENOVI only process the start data entered in the first start data input block and discard the others if multiple start data input block defined in user input.
Example1:
Both KENO V.a and KENOVI read only start data from the first start data input block and ignore the second one. All starting points are uniformly sampled throughout the fissile materials iside the userdefined box (+x=3.0 x=3.0 +y= 1.0 y=1.0 +z= 2.0 z=2.0).
...
READ START
NST=0 XSP=3.0 XSM=3.0 YSP=1.0 YSM=1.0 ZSP=2.0 ZSM=2.0
END START
READ START
NST=6 TFX=2.0 TFY= 3.0 TFZ=0.0 LNU=25
END START
end data
end
Optional parameters, XSM, XSP, YSM, YSP, ZSM, and ZSP allowed in start types 0, 1, 2, 7, and 8 are defaulted to 0.0. The default values are internally updated for the problems either with a global array or with a global unit with cuboid booundary shape as described above. Userdefined values always override these defaults, and the last user entry always overrides the previous one. See Sect. 8.1.4.8 for details and more examples.
Note
User input specification with XSM > XSP or YSM > YSP or ZSM > ZSP is not considered as an error, and calculation is continued by swapping the values. Start type edit in output does not reflect the swapping operations.
Note
KENOVI and KENO V.a has different interpretation for the source sampling when the userdefined cuboid is not inside the outermost geometry. In such a case, some starting points could be outside the global geometry, even though they are sampled inside the userdefined cuboid, and these points are considered as an error by KENO V.a; therefore, code terminates the execution after a couple errors have occurred. In contrast, rather than terminating execution, KENOVI discards the points sampled outside the global geometry, and continues source sampling until all starting points have been sampled in the fissile regions inside the global unit.
Note
Unlike KENO V.a, the outer boundary can be any shape (or combination of shapes) in KENOVI. For such a case, KENOVI samples starting positions in the volume of the first body entered in the boundary definition vector of the global unit if and only if none of translation and transformation operations are performed on this body.
The start type 6 capability allows neutrons to be started at the arbitrary
starting points defined by a set of data. The last entry for each start
6 data set must be LNU
, and the LNU
value of each successive set
of data must be larger than the last. Start 6 data set with any of
TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
, followed by LNU
defines points relative
to the global coordinate system, and with any of NXS
, NYS
,
NZS
, TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
followed by LNU
defines points
relative to the unit located at global array position (NXS
, NYS
, NZS
).
In the start type 6 capabilitiy, TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
values
are defaulted to 0.0, and NXS
, NYS
, and NZS
values are defaulted to 0.
This capability does not allow multiple entries of NXS
, NYS
, NZS
,
TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
in the same start 6 data set.
NXS
, NYS
, NZS
, TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
values entered in each
start type 6 data set override their default values. A start type 6 data set
with one or more missing TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
entries does not halt
the execution. Instead, the last updated values of TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
are used for the missing one.
Start type 6 is capable of reading starting points from an ASCII start data file, which could be created by writing starting points from a previous calculation, defined by RDU in a start type 6 data set. See Sect. 8.1.3.8.1 for the details about a typical ASCII start data file currently supported, and Sect. 8.1.4.8 for more examples.
The following example was designed to illustrate the starting source distributions provided by start data types. Note that only start types 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, and 8 was used for this specific example.
Example2:
In this example, a 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 1 rectangular array filled with four different units is used to demonstrate the different starting point distributions that can be generated by the starting types available in the start data capability. Spatial distribution of the starting points sampled with only start types 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, and 8 are overlayed on the problem geometry.
=kenovi
2x2 pin cell model for starting distribution demonstration
read parameters
cep=ce_v7.1_endf gen=10 npg=5000 nsk=0 htm=no
end parameter
read mixt
mix=1
8016 3.91376E02 92235 8.73674E04 92238 1.87428E02
mix=2
8016 3.91376E02 92235 8.73674E04 92238 1.87428E02
mix=31
40090 2.17623E02 40091 4.74582E03 40092 7.25409E03
40094 7.35137E03 40096 1.18434E03
mix=32
40090 2.17623E02 40091 4.74582E03 40092 7.25409E03
40094 7.35137E03 40096 1.18434E03
mix=41
1001 4.77898E02 1002 5.49646E06 5010 4.75767E06
5011 1.91502E05 8016 2.38396E02 8017 9.08111E06
mix=42
1001 4.77898E02 1002 5.49646E06 5010 4.75767E06
5011 1.91502E05 8016 2.38396E02 8017 9.08111E06
end mixt
read geom
unit 1
com='UO2 Fuel Rod'
cylinder 10 0.3860 6.0 0.0
cylinder 20 0.4582 6.0 0.0
cuboid 30 4p0.6375 6.0 0.0
media 1 1 10
media 31 1 20 10
media 41 1 30 20
boundary 30
unit 2
com='UO2 Fuel Rod'
cylinder 10 0.3860 6.0 0.0
cylinder 20 0.4582 6.0 0.0
cuboid 30 4p0.6375 6.0 0.0
media 2 1 10
media 32 1 20 10
media 42 1 30 20
boundary 30
unit 3
com='UO2 Fuel Rod'
cylinder 10 0.3860 6.0 0.0
cylinder 20 0.4582 6.0 0.0
cuboid 30 4p0.6375 6.0 0.0
media 1 1 10
media 31 1 20 10
media 41 1 30 20
boundary 30
unit 4
com='UO2 Fuel Rod'
cylinder 10 0.3860 6.0 0.0
cylinder 20 0.4582 6.0 0.0
cuboid 30 4p0.6375 6.0 0.0
media 2 1 10
media 32 1 20 10
media 42 1 30 20
boundary 30
global unit 5
cuboid 10 4p1.275 6.0 0.0
array 1 10 place 2 2 1 0.6375 0.6375 0.0
boundary 10
end geom
read array
ara=1 typ=square nux=2 nuy=2 nuz=1 gbl=1
fill 1 3
2 4
end fill
end array
read bounds
all=mirror
end bounds
end data
end
start type 0 (default starting type), samples neutrons initial starting points uniformly throughout four fissile cylinders inside the global unit. Fig. 8.1.12 shows spatial distributions of the initial neutrons.
Note
Overlaying starting distribution on Fulcrumvisualized geometry is not currently implemented in Fulcrum. Initial starting points obtained with PSP option for all these start type configurations were used with an external utility to overlay them on the geometry visualized by Fulcrum.
start type 1, samples neutrons initial starting points with a cosine distribution (in each dimension) within a userdefined box given in start data input. All points except the ones in four fissile cylinders inside the global unit are discarded. Start type 1 produces initial neutron distributions concentrated in the middle of the problem as depicted in Fig. 8.1.13.
...
READ START
NST=1 XSP=1.275 XSM=1.275 YSP=1.275 YSM=1.275 ZSP=6.0 ZSM=0.0
PSP=YES WS6=keno1.src
END START
start type 2 is used with the array problems. With the following start data definition, an arbitrary fraction (FCT=0.5 in this case) of neutrons is started uniformly in the unit (unit=1) located at position NXS=1 NYS=1 and NZS=1 in the global array. The remainder of the neutrons are started in fissile material, from points chosen from a cosine distribution throughout the volume of a cuboid defined by +x=1.275 x=1.275 +y=1.275 y=1.275 +z=6.0 z=0.0. All points except the ones in four fissile cylinders inside the userdefined cuboid are discarded. Start type 2 produces initial neutron distributions concentrated both in the middle of the problem and in the unit=1 located at the specified global array element. Fig. 8.1.14 shows both vertical and horizontal spatial distributions of the initial neutrons sampled with this start type.
...
READ START
NST=2 XSP=1.275 XSM=1.275 YSP=1.275 YSM=1.275 ZSP=6.0 ZSM=0.0
FCT=0.5 NXS=1 NYS=1 NZS=1
PSP=YES WS6=keno2.src
END START
start type 5 uniformly samples initial starting points inside the unit=2 in the global array. Fig. 8.1.15 shows the both vertical and horizontal spatial distributions of the initial neutrons sampled with this start type.
...
READ START
NST=5
NBX=2
PSP=YES WS6=keno5.src
END START
start type 7 samples neutrons initial starting points with a uniform distribution in XY and a \((1cos)^2\) distribution in Z inside the cuboid defined by +x=1.275 x=1.275 +y=1.275 y=1.275 +z=6.0 z=0.0. Start type 7 produces an initial neutron distributions concentrated to the top and bottom parts of the problem as shown in Fig. 8.1.16.
...
READ START
NST=7 XSP=1.275 XSM=1.275 YSP=1.275 YSM=1.275 ZSP=6.0 ZSM=0.0
PSP=YES WS6=keno7.src
END START
start type 8 samples the neutrons initial starting points with a uniform distribution in XY and a segmented distribution in Z inside the cuboid defined by +x=1.275 x=1.275 +y=1.275 y=1.275 +z=6.0 z=0.0. Start type 8 with the specified input places the majority of the neutrons in the bottom of the problem and gradually decreases the neutron population from bottom to top using the userprovided segmented distribution as shown in Fig. 8.1.17.
...
READ START
NST=8
PSP=YES WS6=keno8.src
XSP=1.275 XSM=1.275 YSP=1.275 YSM=1.275
ZSM=0.0 ZSP=1.0 FCT=0.30
ZSM=1.0 ZSP=2.0 FCT=0.25
ZSM=2.0 ZSP=3.0 FCT=0.20
ZSM=3.0 ZSP=4.0 FCT=0.13
ZSM=4.0 ZSP=5.0 FCT=0.10
ZSM=5.0 ZSP=6.0 FCT=0.02
END START
8.1.3.8.1. ASCII Start Data File Format
A sample ASCII start data file is shown below. In a typical ASCII
start data file, each line defines a data set. The first three
columns are TFX
, TFY
, and TFZ
values, the next four
columns are NXS
, NYS
, NZS
, and KFS
, and the last column
is always LNU
. The file must be ended with a termination line with LNU
=0. The file format is given with (3es20.9,5i12)
.
1.000000000e01 2.000000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 1
3.000000000e01 2.400000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 15
3.000000000e01 2.500000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 36
4.000000000e01 2.600000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 37
4.000000000e01 2.700000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 38
5.000000000e01 2.800000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 39
5.000000000e01 2.900000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 40
5.000000000e01 2.900000000e+00 3.300000000e+00 0 0 0 1 0
8.1.3.9. Extra 1D XSECS IDs data
Extra 1D cross section IDs are not required. They are allowed as input in order to simplify future modifications to calculate reaction rates, etc., as well as for compatibility with other SCALE codes. The syntax for the extra 1D cross section data block is:
READ X1DS NEUTRON
i1 …ix1d END X1DS
NEUTRON
is a keyword to indicate that the following ID identifies a neutron interaction.
 i_{1} … i_{x1d}
X1D
1D identification numbers or keyword identifiers for the 1D cross section to be used. These cross sections must be available on the mixture cross section library.X1D
entries are expected to be read (see integer PARAMETER data).
8.1.3.10. Mixing table data
A cross section mixing table must be entered if KENO is being run stand
alone and a Monte Carlo cross section format library is not being used
in the multigroup mode, or KENO is being run stand alone in the
continuous energy mode. If the parameter LIB=
(Sect. 8.1.3.3) is
entered, then mixing table data must be entered. A cross section mixing
table is entered using the following syntax:
READ MIXT
p_{1} … p_{N} END MIXT
 p_{1} … p_{N}
are N parameters that might or might not be keyworded.
The possible parameters that can be used in a MIXT
block are
described below.
SCT =
nsctis used to input the number of scattering angles and only applies in multigroup mode. nsct is the number of discrete scattering angles, default = 1. The number of scattering angles specifies the number of discrete scattering angles to be used for the cross sections. If SCT is not set (i.e., SCT= 1), then the number of scattering angles is determined from the cross section library specified. The number of scattering angles defaults to (ncoef+1)/2, where ncoef is the largest Legendre polynomial order used in the problem. It needs to be entered only once for a problem. If more than one value is entered, the last one is used for the problem. For assistance in determining the number of discrete scattering angles for the cross sections, see Sect. 8.1.4.4.3.
EPS =
pbxsis used to enter the cross section message cutoff value, and it only applies in multigroup mode. pbxs is the value of the P_{0} cross section for each transfer, above which generated warning messages will be printed, default = 3 × 10^{5}. The primary purpose of entering this cutoff value is to suppress printing these messages when they are generated during cross section processing. For assistance in determining a value for EPS, see Sect. 8.1.4.4.4.
MIX =
mixis used to input the identification number of the mixture being described. mix defines the mixture being described.
NCM =
ncmxis used to input the nuclide mixture IDs to be used for this mixture. ncmx defines the nuclide mixture ID. When
MIX=
mix is read, ncmx is defaulted to mix also. Then, as long as all the nuclides that need to be mixed into mix already have mix specified as their nuclide mixture (frequently the case when using SCALE), the user does not need to specifyNCM
. The most usual case whereNCM
must be specified is when the mixtures were specified as a different mixture number when they were created in SCALE as compared to the mixture number used for them in KENO. Cell homogenized mixtures also needNCM
specified.TMP
TEM
= temperatureis used to input the desired temperature of the CE cross section data.
nucl
is the nuclide ID number from the AMPX working format cross section library.
XS=
fnameis used to input the optional continuous energy cross section filename to override the default cross sections. fname is the name of the file.
dens
is the number density (atoms/bcm) associated with nuclide ID number nucl.
The sequence “nucl NCM
=ncmx [XS
=fname] dens”
may be repeated until the mixture defined by MIX
=mix has been
completely described.
The sequence “MIX =
mix NCM
= ncmx TMP
TEM
=
temperature nucl NCM
=ncmx [XS
=fname] dens” may
be repeated until all the mixtures have been described.
Note
If a given nuclide ID is entered more than once in the same mixture, then the number densities for that nuclide are summed.
If a mixture number is used as a nuclide ID, then it is treated as a
nuclide and the number density associated with it is used as a
density modifier. (If the density is entered as 1, then the mixture
is mixed in at full density. If it is entered as 0.5, the mixture is
mixed in at one half of its full density.) A Monte Carlo formatted
cross section library is generated on the unit defined by the
parameter XSC=
. If this data set is saved, subsequent cases can
utilize these mixtures without remixing.
The entry XS
=fname is optional. If a nuclide is entered
more than once in a mixture and this entry is specified, then they
must be the same (i.e., cannot use more than one continuous energy
cross section sets for a nuclide in a given mixture). Different
mixtures may have the same nuclide with different continuous energy
cross section sets.
8.1.3.11. Plot data
Plots of slices specified through the geometry can be generated and
displayed (1) as character plots using alphanumeric characters to
represent mixture numbers, unit numbers or bias ID numbers or (2) as
color plots which generate a PNG file using colors to represent mixture
numbers, unit numbers or bias ID numbers. Color plots require an
independent program to display the PNG file to a PC or workstation
monitor or to convert the file to be displayed using a plotting device.
The keyword SCR=
is used to control the plot display method.
SCR=YES
, the default value, uses the color plot display method.
SCR=NO
uses the character plot display method. The value of
SCR
determines the plot display method for all the plots specified
in a problem. If SCR=
is entered more than once, the last entry
determines the plot display method. In other words, all plots generated
by a problem will be either character plots or color plots.
The plot data can include the data for any or all types of plots. A plot
by mixture number is the default. The kind of plot is defined by the
parameter PIC=
. Character plots are printed after the volumes are
printed and before the final preparations for tracking are completed.
Plot data are not required for a problem, but theyb can be used to
verify the problem description. The actual plotting of the picture can
be suppressed by entering PLT= NO
in the parameter data or plot
data. This allows plot data to be kept in the problem input for
reference purposes without actually plotting the picture(s). Entering a
value for PLT
in the plot data will override any value entered in
the parameter data. However, if a problem is restarted, the value of
PLT
from the parameter data is used. The upper left and lower right
coordinates of the plot must be specified relative to the origin of the
problem. See Sect. 8.1.4.10 for a discussion of plot origins and plot
data.
Enter the plot data using the following syntax:
READ PLOT
p_{1} … p_{N} END PLOT
 p_{1} … p_{N}
are N parameters entered using keywords followed by the appropriate data. The plot title and the plot character string must be contained within delimiters. Enter as many picture parameters as necessary to describe the plot. Multiple sets of plot data can be entered. The parameter input for each plot is terminated by a labeled or unlabeled
END
. The labeledEND
cannot use the wordPLOT
as the first four characters of the label. For example,END PLT1
is a valid label, butEND PLOT1
is not. If an unlabeledEND
is used, it cannot start in column 1.
The possible parameters that can be used in a PLOT
block are
described below.
TTL=
delim ptitl delimEnter a onecharacter delimiter delim to signal the beginning of the title (132 characters maximum). The title is terminated when delim is encountered the second time. Acceptable delimiters include ” , ` , * , ^ , or !. Default = title of the KENO case.
PIC=
wrd
The plot type, wrd, is followed by one or more blanks
and must be one of the keywords listed below. The plot type is
initialized to MAT; the default is the value from the previous plot.
MAT
MIX[T[URE]]
MEDI[A]
These keywords will cause the plot to represent the mixture numbers used in the specified geometry slice.
UNT
UNIT[TYPE]
These keywords will cause the plot to represent the units used in the specified geometry slice. In the legend of the color plot, the material number actually refers to the units.
IMP
BIAS[ID]
WTS
WEIG[HTS]
WGT[S]
These keywords will cause the plot to represent the bias ID numbers used in the specified geometry slice. In the legend of the color plot, the material number actually refers to the bias ID numbers.
TYP =
Enter the type desired. XY for an XY plot XZ for an XZ plot YZ for a YZ plot Direction cosines do not need to be entered if TYP is entered.
 Plot coordinates
Enter values for the upper left and lower right coordinates of the plot as described below. Data must be entered for all nonzero coordinates unless all six values from the previous plot are to be used.
 Upper left coordinates
Enter the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the upper lefthand corner of the plot.
XUL=
xulis used to enter the X coordinate of the upper lefthand corner of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other coordinates are entered.
YUL=
yulis used to enter the Y coordinate of the upper lefthand corner of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other coordinates are entered.
ZUL=
zulis used to enter the Z coordinate of the upper lefthand corner of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other coordinates are entered.
 Lower right coordinates
Enter the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the lower righthand corner of the plot.
XLR=
xlris used to enter the X coordinate of the lower righthand corner of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other coordinates are entered.
YLR=
ylris used to enter the Y coordinate of the lower righthand corner of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other coordinates are entered.
ZLR=
zlris used to enter the Z coordinate of the lower righthand corner of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other coordinates are entered.
 Direction cosines across the plot
Enter direction numbers proportional to the direction cosines for the AX axis of the plot. The AX axis is from left to right across the plot. If any one of the AX direction cosines is entered, the other two are set to zero. The direction cosines are normalized by the code.
UAX=
uax is used to enter the X component of the direction cosines for the AX axis of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other direction cosines are entered.VAX=
vax is used to enter the Y component of the direction cosines for the AX axis of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other direction cosines are entered.WAX=
wax is used to enter the Z component of the direction cosines for the AX axis of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other direction cosines are entered. Direction cosines down the plot
Enter direction numbers proportional to the direction cosines for the DN axis of the plot. The DN axis is from top to bottom down the plot. If any one of the DN direction cosines is entered, the other two are set to zero. The direction cosines are normalized by the code.
UDN=
udn is used to enter the X component of the direction cosines for the DN axis of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other direction cosines are entered.VDN=
vdn is used to enter the Y component of the direction cosines for the DN axis of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other direction cosines are entered.WDN=
wdn is used to enter the Z component of the direction cosines for the DN axis of the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if any other direction cosines are entered. Scaling parameters
Enter one or more scaling parameters to define the size of the plot.
Note
If any of the scaling parameters are entered for a plot, the value of those that were not entered is recalculated. If none of the scaling parameters are specified for a plot, the values from the previous plot are used.
DLX=
dlxis used to input the horizontal spacing between points on the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if
NAX
orNDN
is entered.DLD=
dldis used to input the vertical spacing between points on the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if
NAX
orNDN
is entered.
Note
If either DLX or DLD is entered, the code will calculate the value of the other. If both are entered, the plot may be distorted.
NAX=
naxis used to input the number of intervals to be printed across the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if
DLX
orDLD
is entered.NDN=
ndnis used to input the number of intervals to be printed down the plot. Default = value from previous plot; initialized to zero if
DLX
orDLD
is entered.
Global scaling parameter
LPI=
lpiis used to input a scaling factor used to control the horizontal to vertical proportionality of a plot or plots. SCALE 4.3 and later versions allow lpi to be input as a floating point number. For an undistorted character plot, lpi should be specified as the number of characters down the page that occupy the same distance as ten characters across the page. For an undistorted color plot, lpi should be entered as ten times the ratio of the vertical pixel dimension to the horizontal pixel dimension. The default value of lpi is 8.0 for a character plot and 10.0 for a color plot. lpi=10 will usually display an undistorted color plot.
The value entered for lpi applies to all plot data following it until a new value of lpi is specified.
Note
Plot data must include the specification of the upper left corner of the plot and the direction cosines across and down the plot.
Additional data required to generate a plot are one of the following combinations:
1. the lower right corner of the plot, the global scaling parameter,
LPI
, and one of the scaling parameters (DLX
,DLD
,NAX
,NDN
).2. the lower right corner of the plot, one of the scaling parameters related to the horizontal specifications of the plot (
DLX
orNAX
), and one of the scaling parameters related to the vertical specification of the plot (DLD
orNDN
).LPI
, even if specified will not be used.3.
NAX
andNDN
and any two ofLPI, DLX
, andDLD
. IfLPI, DLX
, andDLD
are all specified,LPI
is not used.The data required to generate a plot may be supplied from (1) defaulted values, (2) data from the previous plot, or (3) data that are specifically entered for the current plot.
 Miscellaneous parameters
Enter miscellaneous parameters
RUN=
runis used to determine if the problem is executed or is terminated after data checking. A value of YES for run means the problem will be executed if all the data were acceptable. A value of NO specifies the problem will be terminated after data checking is completed. The default value of
RUN
is YES.PLT=
pltis used to specify if a plot is to be made. A value of YES for plt specifies that a plot is to be made. If plot data are entered,
PLT
is defaulted to YES.
Note
The parameters RUN
and PLT
can also be entered in the
PARAMETER data. See Sect. 8.1.3.3. It is recommended that these
parameters be entered only in the parameter data block in order to
ensure that the data printed in the “Logical Parameters” table are what
is actually performed.
SCR=
srcThis is used to determine the plot display method. The plot display method is specified by entering either YES or NO for src. The default value is YES.
SCR
=YES uses the color plot display method.SCR
=NO uses the character plot display method. IfSCR
is entered more than once in a problem, the last value entered is the one that is used.NCH=
delim char delimEnter only if plots are to be made utilizing the character plot display method (
SCR=
NO). Enter a delimiter (i.e., ” , ` , * , ^ , or !) to signal the beginning of character string char. The character string is terminated when the delim character is encountered the second time. Do not use the initial delimiter in the char string, as it will be read as terminating the string. char is a character string with each entry representing a plottable quantity (i.e., media {mixture} number, unit number, or bias ID). These are the characters that will be used in the plot. The first entry represents media, unit, or bias ID zero; the second entry represents the smallest media, unit, or bias ID used in the problem; the third entry represents the next larger media, unit, or bias ID used in the problem; etc. For example, assumePIC
=MAT is specified, and 15 mixtures are defined in the mixing table, and the geometry data use only mixtures 3 and 7. By default, a blank will be printed for mixture zero, a 1 will be printed for mixture 3, and a 2 will be printed for mixture 7. If you wish to print a zero for a void (mixture 0), a 3 for mixture 3, and a 7 for mixture 7, enter NCH=`037’.
The default values of CHAR are the following:
Quantity 
0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
SYMBOL 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 

Quantity 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
SYMBOL 
G 
H 
I 
J 
K 
L 
M 
N 
O 
P 
Q 
R 
S 
T 
U 
V 
Quantity 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

SYMBOL 
W 
X 
Y 
Z 
# 
, 
$ 
 
+ 
) 
& 
> 
: 
; 

Quantity 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 

SYMBOL 
\(\cdot\) 
 
“%” 
“*” 
“”“ 
“=” 
“!” 
“(“ 
“@” 
“<” 
“/” 
0 
CLR=
n_{1} r*(*n_{1}) g*(*n_{1}) b*(*n_{1}) … n_{N} r*(*n_{N}) g*(*n_{N}) b*(*n_{N})END COLOR
this entry is used to define the colors to be used by the color plot. It may be entered only if plots are to be made utilizing the color plot display method (
SCR
=YES). After entering the keywordCLR=
, 4 numbers are entered N times. The first number, n_{1}, represents a media (mixture) number, unit number, or bias ID. The next three numbers, whose values can range from 0 through 255, define the red, green, and blue components of the color that will represent this n_{1} in the plot. The sequence of 4 numbers is repeated until the colors associated with all of the media (mixture) numbers, unit numbers, or bias IDs used in the problem have been defined. The smallest number that can be entered for n_{i} is 1, representing undefined regions in the plot. An ni of 0 represents void regions; n_{i} of 1 represents the smallest media, unit, or bias ID used in the problem; n_{i} of 2 represents the next larger media, unit, or bias ID used in the problem, etc. The color plot definition data are terminated by entering the keywordsEND COLOR
. A total of 256 default colors are provided in Table 8.1.27 Two of those colors represent undefined regions, n_{i}=1*, as black and void regions, and n_{i}=0 as gray. The remaining 254 colors represent the default values for mixtures, bias IDs, or unit numbers used in the problem. If num is entered as 1, the next three numbers define the color that will be used to represent undefined regions of the plot. The default color for undefined regions is black, represented as 0 0 0. If n_{i} is entered as 0, the next three numbers define the color that will represent void regions in the plot. The default color for void is gray, represented as 200 200 200. For example, assume a color plot is to be made for a problem that uses void regions and mixture numbers 1, 3, and 5. By default, the undefined regions (Index 1) will be black; void regions (Index 0) will be gray; the first mixture, mixture 1 (Index 1), will be medium blue; the next larger mixture, mixture 3 (Index 2), will be turquoise2; and the last mixture, mixture 5 (Index 3), will be green2. If these values are acceptable, data do not need to be entered forCLR=
. If the user decides to define void to be white (255 255 255), mixture 1 to be red (255 0 0), mixture 3 to be bright blue (0 0 255), and mixture 5 to be green (0 255 0), then the following data could be entered:CLR
=0 255 255 255 1 255 0 0 2 0 0 255 3 0 255 0END COLOR
In this example, the first number (0) defines the void, and the next three numbers are the red, green, and blue components that combine as the color white. The fifth number (1) represents the smallest mixture number (mixture 1), and the next three numbers are the red, green, and blue components of red. The ninth number (2) represents the next larger mixture number (mixture 3), and the next three numbers are the red, green, and blue components of bright blue. The thirteenth number (3) represents the next larger mixture number (mixture 5), and the next three numbers are the red, green, and blue components of green. The
END COLOR
terminates the color definition data. Because color data were not entered for ni of 1, undefined regions will be represented by the color black, the default specification from Table 8.1.27. The red, green, and blue components of some bright colors are listed below.Display Color
red
green
blue
black
0
0
0
white
255
255
255
“default void gray”
200
200
200
red
255
0
0
green
0
255
0
brightest blue
0
0
255
yellow
255
255
0
brightest cyan
0
255
255
magenta
255
0
255
The 256 default colors are listed in Table 8.1.27.
8.1.3.12. Energy group boundary data
Upper energy group boundary data in eV are entered to determine the
groups into which the tallies will be collected in the continuous energy
mode. For G groups G+1 entries are entered. The last entry is the
lower energy boundary of the last group. The values must be in
descending order. The parameter NGP
is set equal to the number of
entries1. The syntax is:
READ ENERGY
u_{1} …uG u_{G+1} END ENERGY
 u_{1} … u_{G}
are the upper energy limits of energy groups 1 … G, respectively.
 u_{G+1}
is the lower energy limit of energy group G.
Example:
READ ENERGY
2e7 1e5 1 1e5
END ENERGY
Defines a 3group structure with group 1 (2e+7 eV to 1e+5 eV), group 2
(1e+5 eV to 1 eV), and group 3 (1 eV to 1e5 eV) and sets NGP
=3.
Energy group boundary data are optional. Default values for the energy group boundaries in the calculations are determined as in the following order:
Use energy group boundaries from
ENERGY
block if specified in the input. The number of entries in theENERGY
block isNGP
+1.If only
NGP
is specified (inPARAMETER
block) in the input andNGP
is equal to the number of energy groups in one of the SCALE neutron cross section libraries, the energy group structure from that library will be used.If only
NGP
is specified (inPARAMETER
block) in the input andNGP
is not equal to the number of energy groups in one of the SCALE neutron cross section libraries,NGP
equal lethargy bins will be used.Use SCALE 252group structure as default,
NGP
=252.
8.1.3.13. Volume data
If volumes are needed (for calculating fission densities, fluxes, etc.), then the data necessary to determine them are entered. The syntax for this block is:
READ VOLUME
p_{1} … p_{N} END VOLUME
 p_{1} … p_{N}
are N parameters entered using keywords followed by the appropriate data.
The possible parameters that can be used in a VOLUME
block are
described below.
READVOL=
volused to input the file name (up to 256 characters) of the file from which userspecified volumes are read. This is an optional parameter and only works for KENOVI. The data are read in sections for each
UNIT
contained in the problem. First the keyword “UNIT
” is read, followed by theUNIT
number. For thatUNIT
the data for each region containing material in the order shown in the input is read as follows: the keyword “MEDIA
” is read, followed by the mixture number, followed by the keyword “VOL
=”, followed by the total volume for that region. Regions containingARRAY
s andHOLE
s are skipped. An example of the data contained in a volume file is given later in this section.TYPE=
vcalcused to determine the type of volume calculation. vcalc can have the values:
NONE: (only works in KENOVI, where it is also the default) No volume calculation, volumes are set to 1.0 (only in KENOVI).
TRACE: A trapezoidal integration will be performed (only in KENOVI).
RANDOM: A Monte Carlo integration will be performed.
NRAYS=
ntotalthe number of intervals used in the trapezoidal integration (default 100,000). Used only with TYPE=TRACE (KENOVI).
BATCHES=
nloopthe number of batches to be used in the Monte Carlo integration (default 500). Used only with TYPE=RANDOM.
POINTS=
nplpthe number of points per batch used in the Monte Carlo integration (default 1000). Used only with TYPE=RANDOM.
XP=
xpthe pls X face of the encompassing cuboid.
XM=
xmthe minus X face of the encompassing cuboid.
YP=
ypthe plus Y face of the encompassing cuboid.
YM=
ymthe minus Y face of the encompassing cuboid.
ZP=
zpthe plus Z face of the encompassing cuboid.
ZM
zmthe minus Z face of the encompassing cuboid.
SAMPLE_DEN=
sampledenthe density of sampling points per cm^{3} per batch. Used only with TYPE=RANDOM.
IFACE
=fnamethe face of the enclosing cuboid where the trapezoidal integration will be performed. Enter either
XFACE
,YFACE
, orZFACE
. KENOVI will integrate over the face with the smallest area by default. This allows specifying a different face. Used only forTYPE=TRACE
(KENOVI).
The volume parameters include specifying the type of calculation to
determine the volumes and additional parameters needed for the selected
type. In KENOVI the default type is NONE (i.e., no volume calculation
will be performed), and the volumes for regions not containing
HOLE
s or ARRAY
s will be set to 1.0. No other data are
needed for this type.
In KENOVI the volume data may be entered for any or all regions within
the geometry data by placing the keyword VOL
= followed by the
total volume of that region in the problem at the end of the MEDIA
card. See Sect. 8.1.3.4 (Geometry Data) for more details.
For KENOVI, in the same problem, volumes may be entered using a
combination of three methods: (1) in the geometry data using VOL
=,
(2) read from a volume file, and (3) calculated. The calculated volumes
(method 3) are obtained for both the regions, and the meshes are defined
by a grid (such as in TSUNAMI runs). As for KENO V.a, the mesh volumes
must always be calculated (i.e., there is no method to input the mesh
volumes). If volumes are entered or calculated using more than one
method, the following hierarchy is used to determine which volume is
used for the regions.
Volumes entered as part of a
MEDIA
card usingVOL
= are always used.Volumes read from the volume file are used if that volume for the region was not specified using VOL= following a
MEDIA
card.Calculated volumes are used if they are not specified using
VOL=
and if there is no volume file or data for that region on the volume file.Volumes that have not been set or calculated will be set to 1.0. This may result in negative fluxes and fission densities for these regions.
Volumes are only calculated for regions containing material. Regions containing
ARRAY
s orHOLE
s have no volume. Those volumes are associated with theUNIT
contained in theARRAY
orHOLE
.
In KENO V.a, the region volumes are always calculated by the code
without the user’s intervention. This is possible because KENO V.a has
no region intersections, so calculation of the volumes is always
possible using analytical methods. The use of the (RANDOM) calculated
volumes using the VOLUME
block is then only justified when the user
needs to calculate the volumes defined by a grid, such as for TSUNAMI
calculations.
When volumes are calculated using either RANDOM or TRACE, then a file containing volumes and named _volxxxx (where xxxx is an 18digit number with the leftmost unused digits padded with zeros) is created in the temporary directory. The program searches the temporary directory for a file name beginning with _vol. If it is not found, the volume file that is created is named _vol000000000000000000. If a file exists, then a new file will be created where the file number is the largest number associated with a previous volume file incremented by 1. The file is automatically copied to the user directory with the input file base name prepended to it, such as inputfile.volxxxx.volumes.
Below is an example of the VOLUME
data block associated with a case
in which volumes are being calculated using ray tracing. The number of
rays used is set to one million, and if the outer unit volume is not a
cuboid, then a cuboid will be placed around the global region prior to
calculating volumes.
read volume
type=trace nrays=1000000
XP=10 XM=15 YP=15 YM=15 ZP=15 ZM=15
end volume
Below is an example of the VOLUME
data block associated with a case
where volumes are being calculated using random sampling. The number of
particles per batch is set to 100,000, and the number of batches used is
set to 500. After being calculated, the volume data will be written to a
file in the temporary directory as discussed above.
read volume
type=random points=100000 batches=500
XP=10 XM=10 YP=15 YM=15 ZP=25 ZM=15
end volume
Below is an example of the VOLUME
data block associated with a case
where volumes are both read in from the file VOLUME_DATA and calculated
using random sampling. The number of particles per generation is set to
1,000,000, and the number of generations used is set to 500. The file
VOLUME_DATA must be formatted as shown below. The calculated volume data
are written in the temporary working directory to a file as discussed
above. Calculating volume data for some volume regions and providing
input volume data for others may be useful if only part of the volume
data is known and the remaining data need to be calculated.
read volume
type=random points=1000000 batches=500
readvol=volume_DAta
end volume
Example volume file VOLUME_DATA:
UNIT 1
MEDIA 1 VOL=110.0
MEDIA 2 VOL=2435.8
MEDIA 2 VOL=3242.9
UNIT 2
MEDIA 2 VOL=342.8
MEDIA 0 VOL=4235.0
Below is an example of a sample problem in which volumes are being
calculated using random sampling. The number of particles per generation
is set to 100,000, and the number of generations used is set to 500.
After being calculated, the VOLUME
data will be written as described
above.
=CSAS6
SAMPLE PROBLEM WITH VOLUMES CALCULATED AND PRINTED TO FILE
v7.1252n
READ COMP
URANIUM 1 DEN=18.76 1 293 92235 93.2 92238 5.6 92234 1.0 92236 0.2 END
END COMP
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 3
COM='SINGLE UNIT CENTERED'
SPHERE 10 4.000
CUBOID 20 6P6.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 0 1 20 10
BOUNDARY 20
UNIT 1
COM='SINGLE UNIT CENTERED'
SPHERE 10 5.000
CUBOID 20 6P6.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 0 1 20 10
BOUNDARY 20
GLOBAL UNIT 2
COM='Global UNIT'
CUBOID 10 6P18.0
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 2 2 2 3R0.0
BOUNDARY 10
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=3 NUY=3 NUZ=3 TYP=CUBOIDAL FILL
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 END ARRAY
READ VOLUME
TYPE=RANDOM POINTS=100000 BATCHES=500
END VOLUME
END DATA
END
Example volume file _volxxxx:
UNIT 1
MEDIA 1 VOL=9423.45
MEDIA 0 VOL=21678.6
UNIT 3
MEDIA 1 VOL=2410.81
MEDIA 0 VOL=13143.1
Below is an example of a problem with the volumes entered in the
geometry data block using VOL=
followed by the volume for all
MEDIA
type content records. Note that the keyword VOL=
should never follow a HOLE
or ARRAY
content record.
=csas26
Sample problem with volumes input in geometry data
v7.1252n
read comp
uranium 1 den=18.76 1 293 92235 93.2 92238 5.6 92234 1.0 92236 0.2 end
end comp
read geometry
unit 3
com='unit 3'
sphere 10 4.000
cuboid 20 6p6.0
media 1 1 10 vol=2412.7
media 0 1 20 10 vol=13139.3
boundary 20
unit 1
com='UNIT 1'
sphere 10 5.000
cuboid 20 6p6.0
media 1 1 10 vol=9424.8
media 0 1 20 10 vol=21679.2
boundary 20
global unit 2
com='GLOBAL Unit 2'
cuboid 10 6p18.0
array 1 10 place 2 2 2 3r0.0
boundary 10
end geometry
read array ara=1 nux=3 nuy=3 nuz=3 typ=cuboidal fill
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 end array
end data
end
8.1.3.14. Grid geometry data
This data block is used to input the data needed to define a Cartesian grid for tallying purposes.
READ GRID N
p_{1} … p_{L} END GRID
 N
mesh grid identifier, always entered.
 p_{1} … p_{L}
are L parameters chosen from the list below. The parameters are entered using keywords followed by the appropriate data, except for the grid identifier, which is always entered first as an integer.
N
[UM
]XCELLS=
numxnumber of cells in the x direction, default = 1.
N
[UM
]YCELLS=
numynumber of cells in the y direction, default = 1.
N
[UM
]ZCELLS=
numznumber of cells in the z direction, default = 1.
XMIN=
xminminimum cell boundary in the x direction, default = 0.
XMAX=
xmaxmaximum cell boundary in the x direction, default = 1.
YMIN=
yminminimum cell boundary in the y direction, default = 0.
YMAX=
ymaxmaximum cell boundary on the y direction, default = 1.
ZMIN
=zminminimum cell boundary in the z direction, default = 0.
ZMAX=
zmaxmaximum cell boundary in the z direction, default = 1.
XPLANES
xplanesthe cell boundaries in the x direction followed by end, default = 0, 1 end.
YPLANES
yplanesthe cell boundaries in the y direction followed by end, default = 0, 1 end.
ZPLANES=
zplanesthe cell boundaries in the z direction followed by end, default = 0, 1 end.
XLINEAR=
numcellsx *x_{min} x_{max}generate yz planes from x_{min} to x_{max} creating numcellsx intervals.
YLINEAR=
numcellsy *y_{min} y_{max}generate xz planes from y_{min} to y_{max}, creating numcellsy intervals.
ZLINEAR=
numcellsz *z_{min} z_{max}generate xy planes from z_{min} to z_{max}, creating numcellsz intervals.
TITLE=
titleoptional title for this mesh grid. Only used in KENO if an error in the grid causes a debug print.
If numx, xmin, xmax are entered, then the code will calculate numx equally spaced cells in the x direction between xmin and xmax.
If xplanes is entered, then the code will count the number of unique xplanes, and order them from minimum to maximum, deleting any duplicates.
If the user inputs both sets of data, then the code will use the xplanes data.
If xplanes and xlinear are both entered, then the code will retain all unique planes from xplanes and all xlinear entries provided. The above also applies to Y and Z.
NOTE
: The user MUST set the minimum and maximum values in each
direction so that the actual geometry is totally covered by the mesh for
mesh flux tally that is used in TSUNAMI sensitivity calculations.
KENO checks for and eliminates duplicate or nearly duplicate planes.
The user may specify multiple mesh grids; each must be defined in
separate READ GRID
blocks. In this case, each grid should have
different N (grid ID number). See Sect. 8.1.4.11 for details and
samples.
8.1.3.15. Reaction data
The reaction data block is used to specify the type of tally (e.g., reaction rates, flux, and few group reaction cross sections) and the reaction/nuclide pairs in any mixture used in the problem for reaction tally calculations. This block is operational only with the continuous energy mode, and it provides the specifications for reaction rate, neutron flux, and reaction cross section tallies. See Sect. 8.1.7.6 for more details. For multigroup KENO calculations, use KMART5 or KMART6, which are described in the KMART section of the SCALE manual.
A reaction data block consists of REACTION FILTERS, TALLY TYPE,
ENERGY GROUP BOUNDARIES, and OUTPUT EDITS. These data types can be entered in
any order. A combination of parameters for describing the REACTION FILTERS
and TALLY TYPE must be entered for any reaction or cross section
tally calculation. ENERGY GROUP BOUNDARIES and OUTPUT EDITS data are
optional. Tally calculations can be performed for multiple reactions
specified by the REACTION FILTERS. Only one energy grid, either
specified with the data in ENERGY GROUP BOUNDARIES or from the
READ ENERGY
block or from the code defaults, is used for all reaction tally
calculations. To provide data for the continuous energy depletion
calculations, another energy grid can be specified and used for tallying
only the mixture flux.
Enter REACTION DATA in the form:
READ REACTION
REACTION FILTERS [TALLY TYPE] [ENERGY GROUP BOUNDARIES][OUTPUT EDITS] END REACTION
 REACTION FILTERS
define a reaction map that is used in reaction tally calculations. The REACTION FILTERS must be entered in the following order; mixture data (
MIX
orMIXLIST
) followed by nuclide data (NUC
orNUCLIST
) followed by reaction IDs (MT
orMTLIST
). Each filter is defined using a combination of the following keywords:MIX=
mixnumMixture number, no default value. Specified mixture number must exist in the mixing table and be used in the problem for a valid filter generation. A wildcard
*
can be used to define a filter applicable for all mixtures in the problem.MIXLIST
mixnum_{1} mixnum_{2} … mixnum_{N}END
A list of mixture numbers followed by end, no default values. Specified mixture numbers must exist in the mixing table and be used in the problem for a valid reaction tally calculation. Within each filter, use either
MIX
orMIXLIST
, but not both.NUC=
nucidNuclide identifier, no default value. Specified nuclide must be a constituent of the mixtures used in this filter definition (specified with MIX or MIXLIST). A wildcard “*” can be used to define a filter applicable for all nuclides in each mixture in this filter definition. Nuclide identifiers are listed for all isotopes in the Standard Composition Library section of the SCALE manual.
NUCLIST
nucid_{1} nucid_{2} … nucid_{N}END
A list of nuclide identifiers followed by end, no default values. Specified nuclides must be the constituents of the mixtures used in this filter definition (specified by
MIX
orMIXLIST
). Within each filter, use eitherNUC
orNUCLIST
, but not both.MT=
mtReaction MT number, no default value. Specified reaction MT number should be available for the nuclides defined in this filter definition (specified by
NUC
orNUCLIST
). Otherwise, the code skips the filter definition with this given reaction MT. A wildcard “*” can be used to define a filter with all reaction MTs. Valid SCALE library MT values are listed in the MT Reaction Types on SCALE CrossSection Libraries.MTLIST
mt_{1} mt_{2} … mt_{N}END
A list of reaction
MT
numbers followed by end, no default values. Specified MT numbers should be available for the nuclides defined in this filter definition (specified byMIX
orMIXLIST
). Otherwise, KENO skips that reaction specified in the filter for the reaction tally calculations. Within each filter, use eitherMT
orMTLIST
, but not both.
A reaction filter consists of either single or multiple mixture, nuclide
and reaction definitions. A valid reaction filter starts with mixture
specification, followed by nuclide specification, and ends with reaction
specification. Mixture(s) must be specified with either MIX
or
MIXLIST
keywords. Nuclide(s) in these mixtures must be entered with
either NUC
or NUCLIST
, and reactions for each nuclide must be
specified with either MT
or MTLIST
.
Mixture, nuclide, and reaction number are required for mixture average fluxes, even though the nuclide and reaction numbers are not used for the neutron flux tallies.
Multiple reaction filter definitions are allowed. KENO processes all the definitions and creates a reaction map based on them. The following examples demonstrate the reaction filter specifications for different problems. In these examples, reaction filters are specified based on the following composition data used in the problem:
compositions in the example problem
mixture
nuclides
10
92235, 92238, 8016
20
92238, 94239, 8016
30
92235, 92238, 8016
40
1001, 8016
100
1001, 8016, 5010, 5011
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=18
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=*
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MTLIST 2 18 102 END
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=2
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=18
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=102
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=* MT=18
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=18
MIX=10 NUC=92238 MT=18
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=* NUC=8016 MT=102
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=8016 MT=102
MIX=20 NUC=8016 MT=102
MIX=30 NUC=8016 MT=102
MIX=40 NUC=8016 MT=102
MIX=100 NUC=8016 MT=102
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIXLIST 10 20 30 40 100 END NUC=8016 MT=102
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIXLIST 10 20 30 END NUC=92238 MT=102
MIX=20 NUC=94239 MT=18
MIX=40 NUC=1001 MT=*
MIX=* NUC=8016 MT=2
MIX=* NUC=* MT=27
...
END REACTION
Example 8.1.10 defines a complex reaction filter used to tally:
a) Capture reaction (MT=102) of ^{238}U in mixtures 10, 20 and 30 respectively,
Fission reaction (MT=18) of ^{239}Pu in mixture 20,
All reactions of ^{1}H in mixture 40,
Elastic scattering reaction of ^{16}O in all mixtures,
Total absorption reaction of all nuclides in all mixtures.
Parameters of TALLY TYPE are logical parameters used to select quantities (reaction cross section, reaction rate, and mixture flux) that are tallied for the given problem. The user specifies any combination of these TALLY TYPEs once for all filters:
XSTALLY=
lCEXSTallyEnter YES or NO. A value of YES specifies that reaction cross sections be tallied for the reactions listed in REACTION FILTERS. The default value of
XSTALLY
is NO. Computed reaction cross sections are saved in a file named BASENAME_keno_micro_xs.0 in RTNDIR, which is a SCALE environment variable for the directory from where the calculation was started. BASENAME is a SCALE environment variable that is the base name of the input file. (BASENAME is equal to “mytest” if the SCALE input name is “mytest.inp.”)RRTALLY=
lCERRTallyEnter YES or NO. A value of YES specifies that reaction rates be tallied for the reactions listed in REACTION FILTERS. The default value of RRTALLY is NO. Computed reaction rates are saved in a file named BASENAME_keno_micro_rr.0 in RTNDIR.
Note
KENO combines and saves reaction rate and reaction cross
section tallies to the same file, named BASENAME_keno_micro_xs_rr.0 in
RTNDIR, if both XSTALLY
and RRTALLY
are set to YES.
MIXFLX=
lCEMixFluxEnter YES or NO. A value of YES specifies that mixture fluxes are to be tallied for the mixtures listed in REACTION FILTERS. The default value of
MIXFLX
is NO. Computed mixture fluxes are saved in a file named BASENAME_keno_mixture_flux.0 in RTNDIR.Mixture, nuclide, and reaction number are required for mixture average fluxes, even though the nuclide and reaction numbers are not used for the neutron flux tallies.
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=18
XSTALLY=YES
...
END REACTION
Note
Computed data are saved in a file named BASENAME_keno_micro_xs.0
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=18
XSTALLY=YES RRTALLY=YES
...
END REACTION
Note
Computed data are saved in files named BASENAME_keno_micro_xs_rr.0
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUC=92235 MT=18
XSTALLY=YES MIXFLX=YES
...
END REACTION
Note
Computed data are saved in files named BASENAME_keno_micro_xs.0, and BASENAME_keno_mixture_flux.0, respectively.
ENERGY GROUP BOUNDARIES data define energy group structure other than the defaults for tallying both reaction cross sections/reaction rates and mixture fluxes.
ENER_XS
e1 e2 e3 …END
Upper energy boundary for each
group. The last entry is the lower energy boundary of the last group.
For N groups, there are N+1 entries. Entries must be in descending
order. This may be specified once in the REACTION block and, if used, is
applied to all cross section and reaction rate tallies.
ENER_FLX
e1 e2 e3 …END
Upper energy boundary for each
group, default is NGP
group data. The last entry is the lower energy
boundary of the last group. For N groups, there are N +1 entries.
Entries must be in descending order. This may be specified once in the
REACTION block and, if used, is applied to all mixture flux tallies.
Note
Default values for the energy group boundaries in reaction tally calculations are determined as in the order described in Sect. 8.1.3.12.
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUCLIST 92235 92238 END
MTLIST 16 17 18 END
MIXFLX=YES XSTALLY=YES
...
END REACTION
Default SCALE 252group energy structure is used for tallying both mixture flux and reaction cross sections.
READ ENERGY
20.E6 0.6 1.E4
END ENERGY
...
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUCLIST 92235 92238 END
MTLIST 16 17 18 END
MIXFLX=YES XSTALLY=YES
...
END REACTION
READ PARAMETER
...
NGP=4
END PARAMETER
...
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUCLIST 92235 92238 END
MTLIST 16 17 18 END
MIXFLX=YES XSTALLY=YES
...
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUCLIST 92235 92238 END
MTLIST 16 17 18 END
MIXFLX=YES XSTALLY=YES
ENER_XS 20.E6 1.E3 1.0 1.E4 END
…
END REACTION
READ REACTION
MIX=10 NUCLIST 92235 92238 END
MTLIST 16 17 18 END
MIXFLX=YES XSTALLY=YES
ENER_FLX 20.E6 1.E3 1.0 1.E4 END
ENER_XS 20.E6 1.0 1.E4 END
…
END REACTION
Parameters of OUTPUT EDITS are logical parameters used to print reaction tallies and mixture fluxes in separate files. These parameters are optional parameters.
PRNTXS=
lCEprintXS Enter YES or NO. A value of YES specifies that
reaction cross sections tallies for each mixture be written in separate
files in RTNDIR (BASENAME_keno_micro_xs_mix{mixnum}.0, mixnum is the
mixture numbers specified in the reaction filters). The default
value of PRNTXS
is NO.
PRNTRR=
lCEprintRR Enter YES or NO. A value of YES specifies that
reaction rate tallies for each mixture be written in separate files in
RTNDIR (BASENAME_keno_micro_rr_mix{mixnum}.0, mixnum is the mixture
numbers specified in the reaction filters). The default value of
PRNTRR
is NO.
PRNTFLX=
lCEprintMixFlux Enter YES or NO. A value of YES
specifies that mixture flux tallies for each mixture be written in
separate files in RTNDIR (BASENAME_keno_mixture_flux_mix{mixnum}.0,
mixnum is the mixture numbers specified in the reaction filters).
The default value of PRNTFLX
is NO.
8.1.4. Notes for KENO Users
This section provides assorted tips designed to assist the KENO user with problem mockups. Some information concerning methods used by KENO is also included.
8.1.4.1. Data entry
The KENO data is entered in blocks that begin and end with keywords as described in Sect. 8.1.3.1. Only one set of parameter data can be entered for a problem. However, for other data blocks, it is possible to enter more than one block of the same kind of data. When this is done, only the last block of that kind of data is retained for use by the problem, except for the GRID block for which all blocks are retained.
Within data blocks, a number, x, can be repeated n times by specifying nRx, n*x, or n$x.
Numbers in engineering notation may be specified with or without an “E” between the base and the exponent. For example; 0.0011 may be specified as 1.1e3 or as 1.13.
8.1.4.1.1. Multiple and scattered entries in the mixing table
In the following examples, assume 1001 is the nuclide ID for hydrogen, 8016 is the nuclide ID for oxygen, 92235 is the nuclide ID for ^{235}U, and 92238 is the nuclide ID for ^{238}U. If a given nuclide ID is used more than once in the same mixture, the result is the summing of all the number densities associated with that nuclide. For example:
MIX =1 92235 4.3e2 92238 2.6e3 1001 3.7e2 92235 1.1e3 8016 1.8e2
would be the same as entering:
MIX =1 92235 4.41e2 92238 2.6e3 1001 3.7e2 8016 1.8e2
A belated entry for a mixture can be made as follows:
MIX =1 1001 6.6e2 MIX=2 92235 4.3e2 92238 2.6e3 MIX=1 8016 3.3e2
This is the same as entering:
MIX =1 1001 6.6e2 8016 3.3e2 MIX=2 92235 4.3e2 92238 2.6e3
8.1.4.1.2. Multiple entries in geometry data
Individual geometry regions cannot be replaced by adding an additional description. However, entire unit descriptions can be replaced by adding a new description having the same unit number. The last description entered for a unit is used in the calculation. For example, the following geometry descriptions are equivalent in KENO V.a and KENOVI, respectively:
In KENO V.a:
READ GEOM UNIT 1 SPHERE 1 1 5.0 CUBE 0 1 10.0 10.0
UNIT 2 CYLINDER 1 1 2.0 5.0 5.0 CUBE 0 1 10.0 10.0
UNIT 1 CUBOID 1 1 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 5.0 6.0 CUBE 0 1 10.0 10.0
END GEOM
is the same as entering:
READ GEOM UNIT 1 CUBOID 1 1 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 5.0 6.0
CUBE 0 1 10.0 10.0
UNIT 2 CYLINDER 1 1 2.0 5.0 5.0 CUBE 0 1 10.0 10.0 END GEOM
or
READ GEOM UNIT 2 CYLINDER 1 1 2.0 5.0 5.0 CUBE 0 1 10.0 10.0
UNIT 1 CUBOID 1 1 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 5.0 6.0 CUBE 0 1 10.0 10.0
END GEOM
In KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1 SPHERE 10 5.0
CUBOID 20 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 0 1 20 10
BOUNDARY 20
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 10 2.0 5.0 5.0
CUBOID 20 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 0 1 20 10
BOUNDARY 20
UNIT 1
CUBOID 10 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 5.0 6.0
CUBOID 20 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 0 1 10 20
BOUNDARY 20
END GEOM
is the same as entering
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CUBOID 10 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 5.0 6.0
CUBOID 20 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
BOUNDARY 20
MEDIA 0 1 10 20
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 10 2.0 5.0 5.0
CUBOID 20 10.0 10.0 10.0 10 10.0 10.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 0 1 10 20
BOUNDARY 20
END GEOM
or
READ GEOM
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 30 2.0 5.0 5.0
CUBOID 40 6P10.0
MEDIA 1 1 30
MEDIA 0 1 30 40
BOUNDARY 40
UNIT 1
CUBOID 20 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 5.0 6.0
CUBOID 10 6P10.0
MEDIA 1 1 20
MEDIA 0 1 10 20
BOUNDARY 10
END GEOM
The order of entry for UNIT
descriptions is not important because
the UNIT
number is assigned as the value following the word
UNIT
. They do not need to be entered sequentially, and they do not
need to be numbered sequentially. It is perfectly acceptable to enter
UNIT
s 2, 3, and 5, omitting Units 1 and 4 as long as UNIT
s 1
and 4 are not referenced in the problem. It is also acceptable to
scramble the order of entry as in entering UNIT
s 3, 2, and 5.
8.1.4.2. Default logical unit numbers for KENO
The logical unit numbers for data used by KENO are listed in Table 8.1.28.
Function 
Parameter name 
Unit number 
Variable name 
Problem input data (ASCII) 
5 
INPT 

Problem input data (binary) 
95 
BIN 

Program output (ASCII) 
6 
OUTPT 

Albedo data 
ALB= 
79 
ALBDO 
Scratch unit 
SKT= 
16 
SKRT 
Read restart data 
RST= 
0^{a} 
RSTRT 
34^{b} 
RSTRT 

Write restart data 
WRS= 
0^{a} 
WSTRT 
35^{c} 
WSTRT 

Direct access storage for input data 
8 
DIRECT(1) 

Direct access storage for supergrouped data 
9 
DIRECT(2) 

Direct access storage for cross section mixing 
10 
DIRECT(3) 

Mixed cross section data set 
XSC= 
14^{d} 
ICEXS 
Groupdependent weights 
WTS= 
80 
WTS 
AMPX working format cross sections 
LIB= 
0^{a} 
AMPXS 
Group boundary Library (KENOVI) 
GRP= 
77 
GRPBS 
^{a} Defaulted to zero ^{b} Defaulted to 34 if ^{c Defaulted to 35 if ``RES=`} a number greater than zero and
^{d} Defaulted to 0; if 
8.1.4.3. Parameter input
When the parameter data block is entered for a problem, the same keyword may be entered several times. The last value that is entered is used in the problem. Data may be entered as follows:
READ PARAM FLX=YES NPG=1000 TME=0.5 TME=1.0
NPG=50 TME=10.0 FLX=NO
NPG=500
END PARA
This will result in the problem having FLX=NO
, TME=10.0
, and
NPG=500
. It may be more convenient for the user to insert a new
value than to change the existing data.
Certain parameter default values should not be overridden unless the user has a very good reason to do so. These parameters are as follows:
1.
X1D=
which defines the number of extra 1D cross sections. The use of extra 1D cross sectionsother than the use of the fission cross section for calculating the average number of neutrons per fissionrequires programming changes to the code;2.
NFB=
which defines the number of neutrons that can be entered in the fission bank (the fission bank is where the information related to a fission is stored);3.
XFB=
which defines the number of extra positions in the fission bank;4.
NBK=
which defines the number of neutrons that can be entered in the neutron bank (the neutron bank contains information about each history);5.
XNB=
which defines the number of extra positions in the neutron bank;6.
WTH=
which defines the factor that determines when splitting occurs;7.
WTA=
which defines the default average weight given to a neutron that survives Russian roulette;8.
WTL=
which defines the factor that determines when Russian roulette is played; and9.
LNG=
which sets the maximum words of storage available to the program.
It is recommended that BUG=
, the flag for printing debug
information, never
be set to YES. The user would have to look at the
FORTRAN coding to determine what information is printed. BUG
=YES
prints massive amounts of sparsely labeled information. The user should
only rarely consider using TRK
=YES. This generates thousands of
lines of welllabeled output that provides information about each
history at key locations during the tracking procedure. All other
parameters can be changed at will to provide features the user wishes to
activate.
8.1.4.4. Cross sections
In multienergy group mode, KENO always uses cross sections from a mixed cross section data file. The format of this file is the Monte Carlo processed cross section file. A mixed cross section file can be created by previous KENO run, or by using an AMPX working format library and entering mixing table data in KENO.
8.1.4.4.1. Use a mixed cross section Monte Carlo format library
A mixed cross section Monte Carlo format library (premixed cross section
data file) from a previous KENO case may be used. This file is specified
using the parameter XSC
=. If a mixing table data block is entered,
the premixed cross section data file will be rewritten. Therefore, a
mixing table should not be entered if a premixed cross section data file
is used. The user should verify that the mixtures created by a previous
KENO case are consistent with those used in the geometry data of the
problem.
8.1.4.4.2. Use an AMPX working format library
When an AMPX working format library is used, it must be specified using
the parameter LIB
=, and mixing table data must always be entered.
IDs used in the mixing table must match the IDs on the AMPX working
format library. The user must provide a file with the correct cross
sections with a name that matches the pattern ftNNf001, with NN being
the number of the logical unit.
8.1.4.4.3. Number of scattering angles
The number of scattering angles is defaulted to 1 (defaulted to 2 when
KENOVI is run as part of the CSAS6 sequence). This stand alone default
is not adequate for many applications. The user should specify the
scattering angle to be consistent with the cross sections being used.
The number of scattering angles is entered in the cross section mixing
table by using the keyword SCT
=. See Sect. 8.1.3.10.
The order of the last Legendre coefficient to be preserved in the
scattering distribution is equal to (2 \(\times\) SCT  1). SCT
=1 could be
used with a P_{1} cross section set such as the 16group
HansenRoach cross section library, and SCT
=2, for a P_{3}
cross section set such as the SCALE 27group cross section library.
ENDF/BVII cross section libraries such as the 44group or 252group
libraries contain many nuclides having P_{5} cross section sets.
Isotropic scattering is achieved by entering SCT
=0.
8.1.4.4.4. Cross section message cutoff
The cross section message cutoff value, pbxs, is defaulted to
3 \(\times\) 10^{5}. Warning messages generated when errors are
encountered in the P_{L} expansion of the grouptogroup transfers
will be suppressed if the P_{0} cross section for that particular
energy transfer is less than pbxs. The value of pbxs is specified in
the cross section mixing table by using the keyword EPS
=. See
Sect. 8.1.3.10.
The default value of pbxs is sufficient to assure that warning messages will not be printed for most of the SCALE P_{1} and P_{3} cross section libraries. However, the v7.0n library may print a few errors if P_{5} cross sections are specified.
The error messages below were printed for a problem using the 238group cross section library and pbxs = 3.0 \(\times\) 10^{5}. If the default value of pbxs allows too many warning messages to be printed, a value can be determined which does not print the error messages from the printed messages by choosing a number larger than the P_{0} component on the first line, as shown below.
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION OF THE CROSS SECTION (P_{0}P_{N}) IS P_{0} P_{1} P_{2} … P_{n}
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE M_{1} M_{2} … M_{n}
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THE GENERATED DISTRIBUTION ARE M_{1} M_{2} … M_{n}
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION CORRESPONDING TO THESE MOMENTS IS P_{0} P_{1} P_{2} … P_{n}
___ MOMENTS WERE ACCEPTED
For the following messages, EPS
=6.9e5 would cause all three
messages to be suppressed. A value less than 5.615159e5 and greater
than 4.767635e5 would suppress the second message, and a value less
than 6.855362e5 and greater than 5.615159e5 would suppress the first
two messages.
KMSG060 THE ANGULAR SCATTERING DISTRIBUTION FOR MIXTURE 2 HAS BAD MOMENTS FOR THE TRANSFER FROM GROUP 28 TO GROUP 72
1 MOMENTS WERE ACCEPTED
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION OF THE CROSS SECTION (P0PN) IS
5.615159E05 1.155527E06 2.804013E05 1.732067E06
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE
2.057870E02 4.234578E04 8.710817E06
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THE GENERATED DISTRIBUTION ARE
2.057870E02 4.235078E04 8.710817E06
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION CORRESPONDING TO THESE MOMENTS IS
5.615159E05 1.155527E06 2.804011E05 1.732066E06
THE WEIGHTS/ANGLES FOR THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE
9.999995E01 5.268617E07
2.057881E02 1.973451E01
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE
2.057870E02 4.235078E04 8.710817E06
KMSG060 THE ANGULAR SCATTERING DISTRIBUTION FOR MIXTURE 2 HAS BAD MOMENTS FOR THE TRANSFER FROM GROUP 31 TO GROUP 75
1 MOMENTS WERE ACCEPTED
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION OF THE CROSS SECTION (P0PN) IS
4.767635E05 7.834378E07 2.381887E05 1.174626E06
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE
1.643242E02 2.700205E04 4.451724E06
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THE GENERATED DISTRIBUTION ARE
1.643242E02 2.700282E04 4.437279E06
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION CORRESPONDING TO THESE MOMENTS IS
4.767635E05 7.834378E07 2.381885E05 1.174627E06
THE WEIGHTS/ANGLES FOR THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE
9.999858E01 1.420136E05
1.643265E02 2.334324E07
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE
1.643242E02 2.700282E04 4.437279E06
KMSG060 THE ANGULAR SCATTERING DISTRIBUTION FOR MIXTURE 2 HAS BAD MOMENTS FOR THE TRANSFER FROM GROUP
32 TO GROUP 74 (1)
1 MOMENTS WERE ACCEPTED (2)
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION OF THE CROSS SECTION (P0PN) IS (3)
6.855362E05 1.341944E06 3.423741E05 2.011613E06 (4)
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE (5)
1.957510E02 3.831484E04 7.601939E06 (6)
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THE GENERATED DISTRIBUTION ARE (7)
1.957510E02 3.832207E04 7.502292E06 (8)
THE LEGENDRE EXPANSION CORRESPONDING TO THESE MOMENTS IS (9)
6.855362E05 1.341944E06 3.423740E05 2.011629E06 (10)
THE WEIGHTS/ANGLES FOR THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE (11)
9.999056E01 9.437981E05 (12)
1.957695E02 1.848551E06 (13)
THE MOMENTS CORRESPONDING TO THIS DISTRIBUTION ARE (14)
1.957510E02 3.832207E04 7.502292E06 (15)
The user does not need to attempt to suppress all these messages. They are printed to inform the user of the fact that the moments of the angular distribution are not moments of a valid probability distribution. The original P_{n} coefficients and their moments are listed in lines 3–6 of the message. Lines 7–10 list the new corrected moments and their corresponding P_{n} coefficients.
The weights and angles printed in lines 11–13 were generated from the corrected moments. The last two lines of the message list the moments generated from those weights and angles. They should match line 8, which lists the moments corresponding to the generated distribution.
For most criticality problems, the first moment contributions are much more significant than the contributions of the higher order moments. Thus, the higher order moments may not affect the results significantly. The user may compare the original moments and corrected moments to make a judgment as to the significance of the change in the moments.
8.1.4.5. Mixing table
Mixtures can be used in defining other mixtures. When defining mixture numbers, care should be taken to avoid using a mixture number that is identical to a nuclide ID number if the mixture is to be used in defining another mixture. If a mixture number is defined more than once, it results in a summing effect.
The nuclide mixing loop is done before the mixture mixing loop, which performs mixing in the order of data entry. Thus, the order of mixing mixtures into other mixtures is important because a mixture must be defined before it can be used in another mixture. Some examples of correct and incorrect mixing are shown below, using 1001 as the nuclide ID for hydrogen, 8016 as the nuclide ID for oxygen, 92235 as the nuclide ID for ^{235}U, and 92238 as the nuclide ID for ^{238}U.
EXAMPLES OF CORRECT USAGE
READ MIXT
MIX=1 1001 6.6e2 8016 3.3e2
MIX=2 1 0.5
END MIXT
This results in mixture 1 being fulldensity water and mixture 2 being halfdensity water.
READ MIXT
MIX=1 2 0.5
MIX=3 1 0.5
MIX=2 1001 6.6e2 8016 3.3e2
END MIXT
This results in mixture 1 being halfdensity water, mixture 2 being fulldensity water, and mixture 3 being quarterdensity water. Because the nuclide mixing loop is done first, mixture 2 is created first and is available to create mixture 1, which is then available to create mixture 3.
READ MIXT
MIX=1 1001 6.6e2 8016 3.3e2
MIX=2 92235 7.5e4 92238 2.3e2 8016 4.6e2 1 .01
END MIXT
This results in mixture 1 being fulldensity water and mixture 2 being uranium oxide containing 0.01 density water.
READ MIXT
MIX=1 1001 6.6e2 8016 3.3e2
MIX=2 92235 4.4e2 92238 2.6e3
MIX=1 1 0.5
END MIXT
This results in mixture 1 being water at 1.5 density (1001 9.9e2 and 8016 4.95e2) and mixture 2 is highly enriched uranium metal.
EXAMPLES OF INCORRECT USAGE
READ MIXT
MIX=3 1 0.75
MIX=1 2 0.5
MIX=2 1001 6.6e2 8016 3.3e2
END MIXT
Here the intent is for mixture 2 to be fulldensity water, mixture 1 to be halfdensity water, and mixture 3 to be 3/8 (0.75 × 0.5) density water. Instead, the result for mixture 3 is a void, mixture 1 is halfdensity water, and mixture 2 is fulldensity water. This is because the nuclide mixing loop is done first, thus defining mixture 2. The mixture mixing loop is done next. Mixture 3 is defined to be mixture 1 multiplied by 0.75, but since mixture 1 has not been defined yet, 0.75 of zero is zero. Mixture 1 is then defined to be mixture 2 multiplied by 0.5. If the definition of mixture 1 preceded the definition of mixture 3, as in item (2) under examples of correct usage, it would work correctly.
READ MIXT
MIX=1 1001 6.6e2 8016 3.3e2
MIX=1001 92235 4.4e2 92238 2.6e3
MIX=2 1001 0.5
END MIXT
This results in mixture 1 being fulldensity water, mixture 1001 being uranium metal, and mixture 2 being hydrogen with a number density of 0.5 because 1001 is the nuclide ID number for hydrogen. When a mixture number is identical to a nuclide ID and is used in mixing, that number is assumed to be a nuclide ID rather than a mixture number. The intent was for mixture 1 to be fulldensity water, mixture 1001 to be uranium metal, and mixture 2 to be halfdensity uranium metal.
8.1.4.6. Geometry Considerations
In general, KENO geometry descriptions consist of (1) geometry data
(Sect. 8.1.3.4) defining the geometrical shapes present in the problem,
and (2) array data (Sect. 8.1.3.5) defining the placement of the units
that were defined in the geometry data. The geometry data block is
prefaced by READ GEOM
, and the array data block is prefaced by
READ ARRAY
.
When a 3D geometrical configuration is described as KENO geometry data,
it may be necessary to describe portions of the configuration
individually. These individual partial descriptions of the configuration
are called UNIT
s. KENO geometry modeling is subject to the
following restrictions:
 Units are composed of regions. These regions are created using
geometric bodies and surfaces (
shape
s) that are previously defined.
In KENOVI the geometric bodies and surfaces may intersect. Regions are defined relative to the geometric bodies and surfaces in a
UNIT
.HOLE
s provide a means of creating complex geometries in aUNIT
and then inserting theUNIT
into existingUNIT
s. For complex geometries the use ofHOLE
s may decrease the CPU time required for the problem.In KENO V.a, each geometry region in a
UNIT
must completely enclose all geometry regions which precede it. Boundaries of the surfaces of the regions may be shared or tangent, but they must not intersect. The use ofHOLE
s in KENO V.a provides an exception to this complete enclosure rule. The use ofHOLE
s in KENO V.a will increase the CPU time required for the problem.
 All geometrical surfaces must be describable in KENO V.a as spheres,
hemispheres, cylinders, hemicylinders, cubes, cuboids, or as a set of quadratic equations in KENOVI.
 When specifying an
ARRAY
, eachUNIT
used in a cuboidal ARRAY
must have aCUBE
orCUBOID
as its outer region (this is the only option in KENO V.a); a hexprism as the outer boundary if it is a hexagonal, triangular, or shexagonalARRAY
; a rhexprism as the outer boundary if it is a rhexagonalARRAY
; and a dodecahedron as the outer boundary if it is a dodecahedralARRAY
. In addition, the outer boundary of aUNIT
cannot be rotated or translated in KENO V.a.
 When specifying an
 When several
UNIT
s are used to describe anARRAY
, the adjacent faces of the
UNIT
s in contact with each other must be the same size and shape.
 When several
UNIT
s are placed directly into regions usingHOLE
s. Asmany
HOLE
s as will fit without intersecting otherHOLE
s, nestedARRAY
s orHOLE
s, or theUNIT
BOUNDARY
can be placed in aUNIT
without intersecting each other. In KENO V.a,HOLE
s cannot intersect any of the regions within theUNIT
in which they are placed.HOLE
s are described in more detail in Sect. 8.1.4.6.1, and nestedHOLE
s are described in Sect. 8.1.4.6.2.
 Multiple
ARRAY
s may be required to describe a complicated system. In KENO V.a, only one
ARRAY
may be placed directly into aUNIT
. However, multipleARRAY
s may be placed in aUNIT
by placing theARRAY
s in otherUNIT
s and placing thoseUNIT
s in the originalUNIT
usingHOLE
s. MultipleARRAY
s may be placed directly into aUNIT
in KENOVI. TheseUNIT
s may then be used to create otherARRAY
s, or they may be placed in otherUNIT
s usingHOLE
s.UNIT
s placed inARRAY
s orHOLE
s that are contained in otherHOLE
s orARRAY
s are said to be nested. The nesting level of aUNIT
is the number ofARRAY
s andHOLE
s between theARRAY
orHOLE
in theGLOBAL UNIT
orARRAY
and theUNIT
. MultipleARRAY
s are described in more detail in Sect. 8.1.4.6.3.
 Multiple
The KENO V.a geometry package allows any applicable shape
to be
enclosed by any other applicable shape
, subject only to the complete
enclosure restriction. The KENOVI geometry package allows any shape
describable using quadratic equations to be enclosed or intersected by
any other allowable shape
. The implication of this type of
description is that the entire volume between two adjacent geometrical
surfaces contains only one mixture, HOLE
, or ARRAY
. A void is
specified by a mixture ID of zero. If HOLE
s are present in the
volume between two surfaces, the volume of that region is reduced by the
HOLE
’s volume(s).
In KENO V.a geometry, if the problem requires several UNIT
s to
describe its geometrical characteristics, each UNIT
that is used in
an ARRAY
must have a rectangular parallelepiped as its outer
surface. This restriction is relaxed in KENOVI, where the outer surface
may be a rectangular parallelepiped, a hexagonal prism, a 90\(^{\circ}\) rotated
hexagonal prism, or a dodecahedron, but all units placed in an array
must use the same shape as their outer BOUNDARY
. In order to
describe the composite overall geometrical characteristics of the
problem, these UNIT
s may be arranged in a rectangular ARRAY
for KENO V.a geometry, or in either a rectangular, hexagonal,
shexagaonal, rhexagonal, or dodecahedral ARRAY
for KENOVI geometry.
This is done by specifying the number of units in the X, Y, and
Z directions. If more than one UNIT
is involved, data must be
entered to define the number assigned to the ARRAY
and the placement
of the individual UNIT
s in the ARRAY
. The ARRAY
number,
the number of UNIT
s in the X, Y, and Z directions, and the
placement data are called array data (Sect. 8.1.3.5).
In the KENO V.a geometry description, the surrounding regions of any
shape
may be placed around an ARRAY
, and they may consist of any
number of regions in any order subject to the complete enclosure
restriction. ARRAY
s are positioned relative to the UNIT ORIGIN
by specifying the location of the most negative point in the array, i.e.
the most negative X, most negative Y, and most negative Z corner of the
ARRAY
. In KENOVI geometry, an ARRAY
may be placed in a region
of any shape if the region boundary is contained within the ARRAY
or
shares the ARRAY
boundary and does not cut across nested
ARRAY
s or HOLE
s. In this case, only the section of the
ARRAY
contained within the region is recognized by the problem.
ARRAY
s are positioned relative to the UNIT
ORIGIN
by
placing the ORIGIN
of a specified UNIT
in the ARRAY
at a
specified location in the UNIT
.
To create a geometry mockup from a physical configuration, the user
should keep the restrictions mentioned earlier in mind. There may be
several ways of correctly describing the same physical configuration.
Careful analysis of the system can result in a simpler mockup and
shorter computer running time. A mockup with fewer geometry regions may
run faster than the same mockup with extraneous regions. The number of
UNIT
s used can affect the running time, because a transformation
of coordinates must be made every time a history moves from one UNIT
into another. Thus, if the size of a UNIT
is small relative to the
mean free path, a larger percentage of time is spent processing the
transformation of coordinates. Because all boundaries in a UNIT
must
be checked for crossings, it may be more efficient to break up complex
UNIT
s into several smaller, simpler UNIT
s. The tradeoff
involves the time required to process more boundary crossings vs the
time required to transform coordinate systems when UNIT
boundaries
are crossed.
Geometry dimensions:
The use of FIDO syntax may help simplify the
description of the geometry. For example, a 20 \(\times\) 20 \(\times\) 2.5 cm rectangular
parallelepiped would have been described as CUBOID
1 1 10.0 10.0
10.0 10.0 1.25 1.25 in KENO V.a and CUBOID
1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
1.25 1.25 in KENOVI. By using the P option (see Table 8.1.19), the
same rectangular parallelepiped could be described as CUBOID
1 1
4P10.0 2P1.25 in KENO V.a and or CUBOID
1 4P10.0 2P1.25 in KENOVI,
where the last 6 entries describe the geometry. The P option simply
repeats the dimension following the P for the number of times stated
before the P, and it reverses the sign every time. Therefore, 6P8.0 is
equivalent to 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0.
Geometry comments:
One comment can be entered for each UNIT
in
the geometry region data. Similarly, one comment can be entered for
each ARRAY
in the array definition data. A comment can be entered
using the keyword COM
=. This is followed by a comment with a
maximum length of 132 characters. The comment must be preceded and
terminated by a delimiter character. Acceptable delimiters include ” , `
, * , ^ , or !. One comment is allowed for each UNIT
in the
geometry region data. If multiple comments are entered for a UNIT
,
the last comment is used. The comment can be entered anywhere after the
UNIT
number where a keyword is expected (Sect. 8.1.3.4). See the
following example.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
COM=*SPHERICAL METAL UNIT*
SPHERE 1 1 5.0
CUBE 0 1 2P5.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2P5.0
CUBE 0 1 2P5.0
COM=!CYLINDRICAL METAL UNIT!
UNIT 3
HEMISPHE+X 1 1 5.0
COM='HEMISPHERICAL METAL UNIT'
CUBE 0 1 2P5.0
UNIT 4
COM=^ARRAY OF SPHERICAL UNITS^
ARRAY 1 3*0.0
UNIT 5
COM="ARRAY OF CYLINDRICAL UNITS"
ARRAY 2 3*0.0
UNIT 6
COM='ARRAY OF HEMISPHERICAL UNITS'
ARRAY 3 3*0.0
END GEOM
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
COM=*SPHERICAL METAL UNIT*
SPHERE 1 5.0
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2P5.0
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
COM=!CYLINDRICAL METAL UNIT!
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 3
SPHERE 1 5.0 CHORD +X=0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
COM='HEMISPHERICAL METAL UNIT'
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 4
COM='ARRAY OF SPHERICAL UNITS'
CUBOID 1 6P15
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 2 2 2 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 5
CUBOID 1 6P15.0
COM='ARRAY OF CYLINDRICAL UNITS'
ARRAY 2 1 PLACE 2 2 2 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 6
COM='ARRAY OF HEMISPHERICAL UNITS'
CUBOID 1 6P15.0
ARRAY 3 1 PLACE 2 2 2 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
GLOBAL UNIT 7
COM='ARRAY OF ARRAYS'
CUBOID 1 4P15.0 2P45.0
ARRAY 4 1 PLACE 1 1 2 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
One comment is allowed for each array in the array definition data.
The rules governing these comments are the same as those listed above.
However, the comment for an ARRAY
must precede the UNIT
arrangement description, and it can precede the ARRAY
number
(Sect. 8.1.3.5). Examples of correct ARRAY
comments are given below.
KENO V.a:
READ ARRAY
COM='ARRAY OF SPHERICAL METAL UNITS'
ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL
ARA=2 COM='ARRAY OF CYLINDRICAL METAL UNITS'
NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F2 END FILL
ARA=3 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2
COM='ARRAY OF HEMISPHERICAL METAL UNITS'
FILL F3 END FILL
ARA=4 COM='COMPOSITE ARRAY OF ARRAYS. Z=1 IS SPHERES, Z=2 IS CYLINDERS, Z=3 IS HEMISPHERES'
NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL 4 5 6 END FILL
END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ ARRAY
COM='ARRAY OF SPHERICAL METAL UNITS'
ARA=1 NUX=3 NUY=3 NUZ=3 FILL F1 END FILL
ARA=2 COM='ARRAY OF CYLINDRICAL METAL UNITS'
NUX=3 NUY=3 NUZ=3 FILL F2 END FILL
ARA=3 NUX=3 NUY=3 NUZ=3
COM='ARRAY OF HEMISPHERICAL METAL UNITS'
FILL F3 END FILL
ARA=4 COM='COMPOSITE ARRAY OF ARRAYS. Z=1 IS SPHERES, Z=2 IS CYLINDERS, Z=3 IS HEMISPHERES'
NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL 4 5 6 END FILL
END ARRAY
Some of the basics of KENO geometry are illustrated in the following examples:
EXAMPLE 1. Assume a stack of six cylindrical disks each measuring 5 cm in radius and 2 cm thick. The bottom disk is composed of material 1, and the next disk is composed of material 2, etc., alternating throughout the stack. A square plate of material 3 that is 20 cm on a side and 2.5 cm thick is centered on top of the stack. This configuration is shown in Fig. 8.1.18.
This problem can be described as a single UNIT
problem, describing
the cylindrical portion first. In this instance, the origin has been
chosen at the center bottom of the bottom disk. The bottom disk is
defined by the first cylinder description, and the next disk is defined
by the difference between the first and second cylinder descriptions.
Since both disks have a radius of 5.0 and a Z length of 0.0, the first
cylinder containing material 1 exists from Z = 0.0 to Z = 2.0, and the
second cylinder containing material 2 exists from Z = 2.0 to Z = 4.0.
When all the disks have been described, a void cuboid having the same X
and Y dimensions as the square plate and the same Z dimensions as the
stack of disks is defined. The square plate of material 3 is then
defined on top of the stack. Omission of the first cuboid description
would result in the stack of disks being encased in a solid cuboid of
material 3 instead of having a flat plate on top of the stack. The
geometry input is shown below.
Data description 1, Example 1.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 4.0 0.0
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 6.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 8.0 0.0
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 10.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 12.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 14.5 0.0
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 5.0 4.0 2.0
CYLINDER 3 5.0 6.0 4.0
CYLINDER 4 5.0 8.0 6.0
CYLINDER 5 5.0 10.0 8.0
CYLINDER 6 5.0 12.0 10.0
CUBOID 7 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 0.0
CUBOID 8 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 14.5 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 1 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 4
MEDIA 1 1 5
MEDIA 2 1 6
MEDIA 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MEDIA 3 1 7 8
BOUNDARY 8
END GEOM
An alternative description of the same example is given below. The origin has been chosen at the center of the disk of material 1 nearest the center of the stack. This disk of material 1 is defined by the first cylinder description, and the disks of material 2 on either side of it are defined by the second cylinder description. The top and bottom disks of material 1 are defined by the third cylinder, and the top disk of material 2 is defined by the last cylinder. The square plate is defined by the two cuboids. This description is more efficient than the previous one because there are fewer surfaces to check for crossings.
Data description 2, Example 1.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 1.0 1.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 3.0 3.0
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 7.0 5.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 7.0 5.0
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.5 5.0
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 10 5.0 1.0 1.0
CYLINDER 20 5.0 3.0 3.0
CYLINDER 30 5.0 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 40 5.0 7.0 5.0
CUBOID 50 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 7.0 5.0
CUBOID 60 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.5 5.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 10 20
MEDIA 1 1 20 30
MEDIA 2 1 30 40
MEDIA 0 1 40 50
MEDIA 3 1 50 60
BOUNDARY 60
END GEOM
Example 1 can also be described as an ARRAY
. Define three different
UNIT
types. UNIT
1 will define a disk of material 1, UNIT
2
will define a disk of material 2, and UNIT
3 will define the square
plate of material 3. The origin of each UNIT
is defined at the
center bottom of the disk or plate being described. As mentioned
earlier, only UNIT
s with a CUBE
or CUBOID
as their outer
boundary can be placed in a cuboidal ARRAY
. The geometry input for
this arrangement is shown below.
Data description 3, Example 1.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
UNIT 3
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.5 0.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=7 FILL 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 END ARRAY
Note
The ARRAY
is assumed to be the GLOBAL ARRAY
because
only a single ARRAY
is defined.
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.5 0.0
MEDIA 3 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
GLOBAL UNIT 4
CUBOID 1 10 10 10 10 14.5 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=7 FILL 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 END ARRAY
If the user prefers for the origin of each unit to be at its center, the geometry region data can be entered as shown below. The array data would be identical to that of data description 3, Example 1.
Data description 4, Example 1.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 1.0 1.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 1.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 1.0 1.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 1.0
UNIT 3
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.25 1.25
END GEOM
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 1.0 1.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 1.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.0 1.0 1.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 1.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.25 1.25
MEDIA 3 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
GLOBAL UNIT 4
CUBOID 1 10 10 10 10 14.5 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 0.0 0.0 1.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
Be aware that each UNIT
in a geometry description can have its
origin defined independent of the other UNIT
s. It would be correct
to use UNIT
s 1 and 3 from data descriptions 3, and UNIT
2 from
data description 4. The array data would remain the same as data
description 3, Example 1. The user should define the origin of each unit
to be as convenient as possible for the chosen description. Care should
be taken when assigning coordinates to the UNIT
used to PLACE
the ARRAY
in its surrounding region.
Another method of describing Example 1 as a bare array is to define
UNIT
1 to be a disk of material 1 topped by a disk of material 2.
The origin has been chosen at the center bottom of the disk of
material 1. UNIT
2 is the square plate of material 3 with the origin
at the center of the UNIT
. The ARRAY
consists of three
UNIT
1s, topped by a UNIT
2, as shown below.
Data description 5, Example 1.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 4.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 4.0 0.0
UNIT 2
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.25 1.25
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=4 FILL 3R1 2 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 5.0 4.0 2.0
CUBOID 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 4.0 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 0 1 1 2 3
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 1.25 1.25
MEDIA 3 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 10 10 10 10 14.5 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=4 FILL 3R1 2 END ARRAY
Example 1 can be described as a reflected ARRAY
by treating the
square plate as a reflector in the positive Z direction. One means of
describing this situation is to define UNIT
s 1 and 2 as in data
description 3, Example 1. The origin of the GLOBAL UNIT
is defined
to be at the center of the ARRAY
. The corresponding input geometry
is shown below.
Data description 6, Example 1.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
GLOBAL UNIT 3
ARRAY 1 10.0 10.0 6.0
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.5 6.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=6 FILL 1 2 1 2 1 2 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 6.0 6.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.5 6.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 0.0 0.0 6.0
MEDIA 3 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=6 FILL 1 2 1 2 1 2 END ARRAY
The user could have chosen the origin of the ARRAY
boundary to be at
the center bottom of the ARRAY
, in which case the geometry
description for the GLOBAL UNIT
would be:
KENO V.a:
ARRAY 1 10.0 10.0 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 14.5 0.0
or
ARRAY 1 10.0 10.0 0.0
REPLICATE 3 4*0.0 2.5 0 1
The reflector region at the top of the array can be added by using a
CUBOID
or by using a REPLICATE
description in KENO V.a. Recall
that there is no REPLICATE
function in KENOVI.
A simpler method of describing Example 1 as a reflected array is to define only one unit as in data description 5, Example 1. The square plate is treated as a reflector, as in data description 6, Example 1. The input for this arrangement is given below.
Data description 7, Example 1.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 4.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 4.0 0.0
GLOBAL UNIT 2
ARRAY 1 10.0 10.0 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 14.5 0.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 5.0 4.0 2.0
CUBOID 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 4.0 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 0 1 1 2 3
BOUNDARY 3
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 0.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 14.5 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
MEDIA 3 1 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
EXAMPLE 2. Assume that the stack of six disks in Example 1 is placed at the center bottom of a cylindrical container composed of material 6 whose inside diameter is 16.0 cm. The bottom and sides of the container are 0.25 cm thick, the top is open, and the total height of the container is 18.25 cm. Assume the square plate of Example 1 is centered on top of the container.
The geometry input can be described utilizing most of the data
description methods associated with Example 1. One method of describing
Example 2 as a single UNIT
is given below.
Data description 1, Example 2.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 1.0 1.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 3.0 3.0
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 7.0 5.0
CYLINDER 0 1 8.0 13.0 5.0
CYLINDER 6 1 8.25 13.0 5.25
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 13.0 5.25
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.5 5.25
END GEOM
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 1.0 1.0
CYLINDER 2 5.0 3.0 3.0
CYLINDER 3 5.0 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 4 5.0 7.0 5.0
CYLINDER 5 8.0 13.0 5.0
CYLINDER 6 8.25 13.0 5.25
CUBOID 7 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 13.0 5.25
CUBOID 8 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.5 5.25
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 1 2
MEDIA 1 1 2 3
MEDIA 2 1 3 4
MEDIA 0 1 4 5
MEDIA 6 1 5 6
MEDIA 0 1 6 7
MEDIA 3 1 7 8
BOUNDARY 8
END GEOM
In the above description, the origin is defined to be at the center of the disk of material 1 nearest the center of the stack. This disk is defined by the first cylinder description. The disks of material 2 above and below it are defined by the second cylinder description. The disks of material 1 above and below them are defined by the third cylinder description. The top disk of material 2 is defined by the fourth cylinder description. The void interior of the container is defined by the fifth cylinder description. The container is defined by the last cylinder description. The first cuboid description is used to define a void whose X and Y dimensions are the same as the square plate and whose Z dimensions are the same as the container. The last cuboid description defines the square plate. Omission of the first cuboid description would result in the container being encased in a solid cuboid of material 3. Thus, both cuboids are necessary to properly define the square plate.
Example 2 can be described as a reflected ARRAY. One of the descriptions uses only one UNIT and is similar to data description 7, Example 1. This description is shown below.
Data description 2, Example 2.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 4.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 0.0
GLOBAL UNIT 2
ARRAY 1 5.0 5.0 0.0
CYLINDER 0 1 8.0 18.0 0.0
CYLINDER 6 1 8.25 18.0 0.25
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 18.0 0.25
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 20.5 0.25
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 5.0 4.0 2.0
CUBOID 3 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 0 1 1 2 3
BOUNDARY 3
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 12.0 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
CYLINDER 2 8.0 18.0 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 1 2
CYLINDER 3 8.25 18.0 0.25
MEDIA 6 1 2 3
CUBOID 4 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 20.5 18.0
CUBOID 5 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 20.5 0.25
MEDIA 3 1 4
MEDIA 0 1 3 4 5
BOUNDARY 5
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
In the above data description, the first two cylinder descriptions define a disk of material 1 with a disk of material 2 directly on top of it. A tight fitting void cuboid is placed around them so they can be stacked three high to achieve the stack of disks shown in Example 1, Fig. 8.1.18. This array comprises the array portion of the geometry region description. The origin of the array boundary, a tight fitting cube or cuboid that encompasses the array, is defined by the ARRAY description. Everything after the ARRAY record is considered part of the reflector. The first cylinder after the ARRAY record defines the void interior of the cylindrical container. The next cylinder defines the walls of the container. The secondtolast cuboid defines a void volume outside the container from its bottom to its top and having the same X and Y dimensions as the square plate. The last cuboid defines the square plate of material 3 that is sitting on top of the container.
Another method to describe Example 2 is as an array composed of units that contain both the stack and container. This description requires a minimum of four units to describe the problem. This configuration is given below in data description 3, Example 2.
Data description 3, Example 2.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 6 1 8.25 0.25 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 0.25 0.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 4.0 0.0
CYLINDER 0 1 8.0 4.0 0.0
CYLINDER 6 1 8.25 4.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 4.0 0.0
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 0 1 8.0 3.0 3.0
CYLINDER 6 1 8.25 3.0 3.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 3.0 3.0
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 5.5 3.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=5 FILL 1 3R2 3 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 8.25 0.25 0.0
CUBOID 2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 0.25 0.0
MEDIA 6 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 10 5.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 20 5.0 4.0 0.0
CYLINDER 30 8.0 4.0 0.0
CYLINDER 40 8.25 4.0 0.0
CUBOID 50 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 4.0 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 20 10
MEDIA 0 1 30 20
MEDIA 6 1 40 30
MEDIA 0 1 50 40
BOUNDARY 50
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 8.0 3.0 3.0
CYLINDER 2 8.25 3.0 3.0
CUBOID 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 5.5 3.0
CUBOID 4 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 5.5 3.0
MEDIA 0 1 1
MEDIA 6 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3
MEDIA 0 1 4 3 2
BOUNDARY 4
GLOBAL UNIT 4
CUBOID 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 20.75 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=5 FILL 1 3R2 3 END ARRAY
In the above description, UNIT
1 is the bottom of the cylindrical
container. The void CUBOID
is only as tall as the bottom of the
container, and its X and Y dimensions are the same as the square plate
on top of the container. If all the UNIT
s in the ARRAY
use
these same dimensions in the X and Y directions, the requirement that
adjacent faces of units in contact with each other must be the same size
and shape is satisfied. This ARRAY
is stacked in the Z direction, so
all UNIT
s must have the same overall dimensions in the X direction
and in the Y direction. UNIT
2 will be used in the ARRAY
three
times to create the stack of disks. It contains a disk of material 1
topped by a disk of material 2. The portion of the container that
contains the disks and the cuboid that defines the outer boundaries of
the unit are included in UNIT
2. UNIT
3 describes the empty top
portion of the container and the square plate on top of it. The
Z dimensions of UNIT
3 were determined by subtracting three times
the total Z dimension of UNIT
2 from the inside height of the
container [18.0  (3 \(\times\) 4.0) = 6.0]. This can also be determined from the
overall height of the container by subtracting off the bottom thickness
of the container and three times the height of UNIT
2 [18.25  0.25
 (3 \(\times\) 4.0) = 6.0]. The origin of UNIT
3 is located at the center of
this distance. For the KENOVI input, a GLOBAL UNIT
is also
provided, UNIT
4, containing the ARRAY
built with UNIT
s 1,
2, 3.
EXAMPLE 3. Refer to Example 1, Fig. 8.1.18, and imagine a HOLE
1.5 cm in diameter is drilled along the centerline of the stack through
the disks and the square plate. In KENO V.a this HOLE
would
eliminate the possibility of describing the system as a single unit
because the HOLE
in the center of the alternating materials of the
stack cannot be described in a manner that allows each successive
geometry region to encompass the regions interior to it. Therefore, it
must be described as an ARRAY
. The square plate on the top of the
disks is defined as a UNIT
in the ARRAY
. In the geometry
description given below, the square plate is defined in UNIT
3.
KENOVI can easily describe this configuration as a single UNIT
.
Data description 1, Example 3.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 0 1 0.75 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 1 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 0 1 0.75 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 5.0 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.0
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 0 1 0.75 2.5 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.5 0.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=7 FILL 1 2 2Q2 3 END FILL END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.75 7.0 5.0
CYLINDER 2 5.0 1.0 1.0
CYLINDER 3 5.0 3.0 3.0
CYLINDER 4 5.0 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 5 5.0 7.0 5.0
CYLINDER 6 8.0 13.0 5.0
CYLINDER 7 8.25 13.0 5.25
CUBOID 8 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.5 13.0
CUBOID 9 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.5 5.25
MEDIA 0 1 1
MEDIA 1 1 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 1 2 3
MEDIA 1 1 1 3 4
MEDIA 2 1 1 4 5
MEDIA 0 1 5 6
MEDIA 6 1 6 7
MEDIA 3 1 8
MEDIA 0 1 7 8 9
BOUNDARY 9
END GEOM
In data description 1, Example 3 above, KENO V.a input, UNIT
1
describes a disk of material 1 with a HOLE
through its centerline.
The first CYLINDER
defines the HOLE
, the second defines the rest
of the disk, and the CUBOID
defines the size of the UNIT
to be
consistent with the square plate so they can be stacked together in an
ARRAY
. UNIT
2 describes a disk of material 2 in similar fashion.
UNIT
3 describes the square plate of material 3 with a HOLE
through its center. The CYLINDER
defines the HOLE
and the
CUBOID
defines the square plate. These three UNIT
s are stacked
in the Z direction to achieve the composite system. This is represented
by FILL122Q23
. The 2Q2
repeats the two entries preceding the 2Q2
twice. Alternatively, this can be achieved by entering
FILL 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 END FILL
. The same ARRAY
can also be achieved using the
LOOP
option. An example of the data for this option is:
LOOP 1 6R1 1 5 2 2 6R1 2 6 2 3 6R1 7 7 1 END LOOP
.
UNIT
1 is placed at the X = 1, Y = 1, and Z = 1,3,5 positions of the
ARRAY
by entering 1 6R1 1 5 2. UNIT
2 is positioned at the X =
1, Y = 1 and Z = 2,4,6 positions in the ARRAY
by entering 2 6R1 2 6
2. UNIT
3 is placed at the X = 1, Y = 1, Z = 7 position of the
ARRAY
by entering 3 6R1 7 7 1. See Sect. 8.1.3.5 for additional
information regarding ARRAY
specifications.
For the KENOVI input, UNIT
1 contains the entire problem
description. The first CYLINDER
describes the 1.5 cm diameter hole
through the stack. The next four CYLINDER
s define the stack. The
sixth and seventh CYLINDER
s describe the void and container. The
two CUBOID
s describe the top plate and surrounding global region
of void. The MEDIA
cards are used to place the materials in the
appropriate regions.
EXAMPLE 4. Assume two large cylinders that are 2.5 cm in radius and 5 cm long are connected by a smaller cylinder that is 0.5 cm in radius and 10 cm long, as shown in Fig. 8.1.19. All three cylinders are composed of material 1. By starting the geometry description in the small cylinder, this system can be described as a single unit.
Data description 1, Example 4.
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
XCYLINDER 1 0.5 5.0 5.0
XCYLINDER 2 2.5 5.0 5.0
XCYLINDER 3 2.5 10.0 10.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 1 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
END GEOM
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
CYLINDER 1 1 0.5 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 0 1 2.5 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 1 1 2.5 10.0 10.0
END GEOM
The origin is at the center of the small cylinder, which is described by
the first cylinder description. The second cylinder description defines
a void cylinder surrounding the small cylinder. Its radius is the same
as the large cylinders, and its height (length) coincides with that of
the small cylinder. The last cylinder description defines the large
cylinders on either end of the small cylinder. In KENO V.a, because this
problem does not specify otherwise, the length of the CYLINDER
s is
assumed to coincide with the Z axis. In KENOVI, because the problem was
created using XCYLINDER
s, the long axes of the CYLINDER
s
coincide with the X axis.
EXAMPLE 5. Assume two large cylinders with a centertocenter spacing of 15 cm, each having a radius of 2.5 cm and length of 5 cm, are connected radially by a small cylinder having a radius of 1.5 cm, as shown in Fig. 8.1.20.
This system cannot be described rigorously in KENO V.a geometry because the intersection of the cylinders cannot be described. However, it can be approximated two ways, as shown in Fig. 8.1.21. The top approximation is described in data description 1, Example 5. The bottom approximation is described in data description 2, Example 5, and data description 3, Example 5. These may be poor approximations for criticality safety calculations.
Data description 1, Example 5.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
CUBE 0 1 2.5 2.5
UNIT 2
XCYLINDER 1 1 1.5 5.0 5.0
CUBOID 0 1 5.0 5.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 1 2 1 END ARRAY
UNIT
1 defines a large CYLINDER
, and UNIT
2 describes the
small CYLINDER
. In both UNIT
s the origin is at the center of
the CYLINDER
. The large CYLINDER
s have their centerlines along
the Z axis and the small CYLINDER
has its length along the X axis.
Data description 2, Example 5.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.5 1.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P2.5 1.0 0.0
UNIT 2
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.5 2P1.5 CHORD 2.0
CUBOID 0 1 2.0 3P2.5 2P1.5
UNIT 3
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.5 2P1.5 CHORD 2.0
CUBOID 0 1 2.5 2.0 2P2.5 2P1.5
UNIT 4
XCYLINDER 1 1 1.5 2P5.5
CUBOID 0 1 2P5.5 2P2.5 2P1.5
UNIT 5
CUBOID 0 1 2P5.0 2P2.5 1.0 0.0
UNIT 6
ARRAY 1 3*0.0
UNIT 7
ARRAY 2 3*0.0
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 1 5 1 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 2 4 3 END FILL
ARA=3 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL 6 7 6 END FILL
END ARRAY
The above geometry description uses ARRAY
s of ARRAY
s (see
Sect. 8.1.4.6.3) to describe the bottom approximation of Fig. 8.1.21.
UNIT
1 defines a large CYLINDER
that has a radius of 2.5 cm and
a height of 10 cm inside a closefitting CUBOID
. This is used in
both large CYLINDER
s as the portion of the large CYLINDER
that
exists above and below the region where the small CYLINDER
joins it.
UNIT
5 is the spacing between the tops of the two large
CYLINDER
s and the spacing between the bottoms of the two large
CYLINDER
s. ARRAY
1 thus defines the bottom of the system:
two short CYLINDER
s (UNIT
1s) separated by 10 cm (UNIT
5
is the separation). UNIT
6 contains ARRAY
1.
UNIT
2 is the left hemicylinder that adjoins the horizontal
CYLINDER
, and UNIT
3 is the right hemicylinder that adjoins the
horizontal CYLINDER
. UNIT
4 defines the horizontal CYLINDER
.
ARRAY
2 contains UNIT
s 2, 4, and 3 from left to right. This
defines the central portion of the system where the horizontal
CYLINDER
adjoins the two hemicylinders. These hemicylinders are
larger than half CYLINDER
s. UNIT
7 contains ARRAY
2. The
entire system is achieved by stacking a UNIT
6 above and below the
UNIT
7 as defined in ARRAY
3, the GLOBAL ARRAY
.
Data description 3, Example 5.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.5 1.0 0.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 2.5 1.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 17.5 2.5 2P2.5 1.0 0.0
HOLE 1 15.0 0.0 0.0
UNIT 3
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.5 2P1.5 CHORD 2.0
UNIT 4
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.5 2P1.5 CHORD 2.0
UNIT 5
XCYLINDER 1 1 1.5 2P5.5
CUBOID 0 1 2P10.0 2P2.5 2P1.5
HOLE 3 7.5 2*0.0
HOLE 4 7.5 2*0.0
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL 2 5 2 END FILL
END ARRAY
The above geometry description uses HOLE
s (see Sect. 8.1.4.6.1) to
describe the bottom approximation of Fig. 8.1.21. UNIT
1 defines a
large CYLINDER
with a radius of 2.5 cm and a height of 1.0 cm.
UNIT
2 defines the same CYLINDER
within a CUBOID
that
extends from X = 2.5 to X = 17.5, from Y = 2.5 to Y = 2.5, and Z = 0.0
to Z = 1.0. The origin of the CYLINDER
is at (0.0,0.0,0.0). Thus
UNIT
2 describes the top and bottom of the CYLINDER
on the left.
UNIT
1 is positioned within this CUBOID
as a HOLE
with its
origin at (15.0,0.0,0.0) to describe the top and bottom of the
CYLINDER
on the right. UNIT
3 is the left hemicylinder that
adjoins the horizontal CYLINDER
, and UNIT
4 is the right
hemicylinder that adjoins the horizontal CYLINDER
. UNIT
5
defines the horizontal CYLINDER
with its origin at the center within
a CUBOID
that extends from X = 10.0 to X = +10.0, Y = 2.5 to Y =
2.5, and Z = 1.5 to Z = 1.5. UNIT
3 is positioned to the left of
the horizontal CYLINDER
, and UNIT
4 is positioned to the right
of the horizontal CYLINDER
by using HOLE
s. The entire system
is achieved by stacking a UNIT
2 above and below UNIT
5 as shown
in the ARRAY
data.
This same geometry description can be used with UNIT
2 redefined,
having its origin defined so that it extends from X = 10 to X = 10, Y =
2.5 to Y = 2.5, and Z = 0.0 to Z = 1. In this instance, the geometry
data would be identical except for UNIT
2. This alternative
description of UNIT
2 is
KENO V.a:
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 2.5 1.0 0.0 ORIGIN 7.5 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P10.0 2P2.5 1.0 0.0
HOLE 1 7.5 0.0 0.0
This system can be easily described in KENOVI geometry because
intersections are allowed. The small CYLINDER
is rotated in data
description 1, Example 5.
Data description 1, Example 5.
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
CYLINDER 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 ORIGIN Y=15.0
YCYLINDER 3 1.5 15.0 0.0
CUBOID 4 5.0 5.0 17.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 1 1 2
MEDIA 1 1 3 1 2
MEDIA 0 1 4 3 2 1
BOUNDARY 4
END GEOM
The first and second CYLINDER
s define the two large
CYLINDER
s, and the third CYLINDER
describes the small
connecting CYLINDER
. The two large CYLINDER
s are oriented
along the Z axis. The second large cylinder is translated so its origin
is at position (0.0, 15.0, 0.0). The small CYLINDER
is oriented
along the Y axis. Region 1 consists of the material in the first large
CYLINDER
. Region 2 consists of the material in the second large
CYLINDER
. Region 3 consists of the material in the small
CYLINDER
but not in either of the large CYLINDER
s. Region 4 is
the BOUNDARY
region.
EXAMPLE 6. Assume 2 small cylinders 1.0 cm in radius and 10 cm long are connected by a large cylinder 2.5 cm in radius and 5 cm long as shown in Fig. 8.1.22.
This problem is very similar to Example 4. It can be described as a
single UNIT
in KENOVI, but not in KENO V.a where it must be
described as an array. In KENO V.a, UNIT
1 defines the large
cylinder, and UNIT
2 defines the small cylinder. The origin of each
UNIT
is at its center. The composite system consists of two
UNIT
2s and one UNIT
1 as shown below. In KENOVI,
CYLINDER
1 defines the long thin cylinder, and CYLINDER
2
defines the short thick cylinder. The origin of each cylinder is at its
center. In both KENO V.a and KENOVI, the centerline of the cylinders
lies along the Z axis.
Data description 1, Example 6.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
CUBE 0 1 2.5 2.5
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 1.0 5.0 5.0
CUBOID 0 1 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 5.0 5.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL 2 1 2 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1.0 12.5 12.5
CYLINDER 2 2.5 2.5 2.5
CUBOID 3 4P2.5 12.5 12.5
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 1 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2 1
BOUNDARY 3
END GEOM
EXAMPLE 7. Assume an 11 \(\times\) 5 \(\times\) 3 squarepitched array of spheres of material 1, radius 3.75 cm, with a centertocenter spacing of 10 cm in the X, Y, and Z directions. The data for this system are given below.
Data description 1, Example 7.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
SPHERE 1 1 3.75
CUBE 0 1 5.0 5.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 3.75
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 10 55.0 55.0 25.0 25.0 15.0 15.0
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 6 3 2 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 10
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
EXAMPLE 8. Assume an 11 \(\times\) 5 \(\times\) 3 rectangularpitched array of spheres of material 1, whose radius is 3.75 cm and whose centertocenter spacing is 10 cm in the X direction, 15 cm in the Y direction, and 20 cm in the Z direction. The input for this geometry is given below.
Data description 1, Example 8.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
SPHERE 1 1 3.75
CUBOID 0 1 5.0 5.0 7.5 7.5 10.0 10.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 3.75
CUBOID 2 5.0 5.0 7.5 7.5 10.0 10.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 55.0 55.0 37.5 37.5 30.0 30.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 6 3 2 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
EXAMPLE 9. Assume an 11 \(\times\) 5 \(\times\) 3 squarepitched array of spheres of material 1 with a 3.75 cm radius and 10 cm centertocenter spacing in the X, Y, and Z directions. This array is reflected by 30 cm of material 2 (water) on all faces, and weighted tracking (biasing) is to be used in the water reflector. The array spacing defines the perpendicular distance from the outer layer of spheres to the reflector to be 5 cm in the X, Y, and Z directions. The geometry input for this system is given below.
Data description 1, Example 9.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 1 3.75
CUBE 0 1 5.0 5.0
GLOBAL UNIT 2
ARRAY 1 55.0 25.0 15.0
REFLECTOR 2 2 6*3.0 10
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=500 2 11 END BIAS
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 3.75
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 55.0 55.0 25.0 25.0 15.0 15.0
CUBOID 2 58.0 58.0 28.0 28.0 18.0 18.0
CUBOID 3 61.0 61.0 31.0 31.0 21.0 21.0
CUBOID 4 64.0 64.0 34.0 34.0 24.0 24.0
CUBOID 5 67.0 67.0 37.0 37.0 27.0 27.0
CUBOID 6 70.0 70.0 40.0 40.0 30.0 30.0
CUBOID 7 73.0 73.0 43.0 43.0 33.0 33.0
CUBOID 8 76.0 76.0 46.0 46.0 36.0 36.0
CUBOID 9 79.0 79.0 49.0 49.0 39.0 39.0
CUBOID 10 82.0 82.0 52.0 52.0 42.0 42.0
CUBOID 11 85.0 85.0 55.0 55.0 45.0 45.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 6 3 2 3*0.0
MEDIA 2 2 2 1
MEDIA 2 3 3 2
MEDIA 2 4 4 3
MEDIA 2 5 5 4
MEDIA 2 6 6 5
MEDIA 2 7 7 6
MEDIA 2 8 8 7
MEDIA 2 9 9 8
MEDIA 2 10 10 9
MEDIA 2 11 11 10
BOUNDARY 11
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=500 2 11 END BIAS
In the KENO V.a input, the ARRAY
boundary defines the origin of the
REFLECTOR
to be at the center of the ARRAY
. The 6*3.0 in the
REFLECTOR
description repeats the 3.0 six times. The REFLECTOR
record is used to generate ten REFLECTOR
regions, each of which is
3.0 cm thick, on all six faces of the ARRAY
.
In the KENOVI input, the basic UNIT
used to construct the ARRAY
is defined in UNIT
1. The ARRAY
is positioned in UNIT
2
(the GLOBAL UNIT
) using the ARRAY
card and the PLACE
option.
The ARRAY
is then surrounded by ten REFLECTOR
regions, each
3.0 cm thick, on all sides.
The first bias ID
is 2, so the last bias ID
will be 11 if
10 regions are created. The biasing data block is necessary to apply
the desired weighting or biasing function to the reflector. The
biasing material ID is obtained from Table 8.1.25. IDs, group
structure and incremental thickness for
weighting data available on the KENO weighting library. If the
biasing data block is omitted from the problem description, the 10
reflector regions will not have a biasing function applied to them,
and the default value of the average weight will be used. This may
cause the problem to execute more slowly, and therefore require the
use of more computer time.
EXAMPLE 10. Assume the reflector in Example 9 is present only on both X faces, both Y faces, and the negative Z face. The reflector is only 15.24 cm thick on these faces. The top of the array (positive Z face) is unreflected.
Data description 1, Example 10.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 1 3.75
CUBE 0 1 5.0 5.0
GLOBAL UNIT 2
ARRAY 1 55.0 25.0 15.0
REFLECTOR 2 2 4*3.0 0.0 3.0 5
REFLECTOR 2 7 4*0.24 0.0 0.24 1
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=500 2 7 END BIAS
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 3.75
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 55.0 55.0 25.0 25.0 15.0 15.0
CUBOID 2 58.0 58.0 28.0 28.0 15.0 18.0
CUBOID 3 61.0 61.0 31.0 31.0 15.0 21.0
CUBOID 4 64.0 64.0 34.0 34.0 15.0 24.0
CUBOID 5 67.0 67.0 37.0 37.0 15.0 27.0
CUBOID 6 70.24 70.24 40.24 40.24 15.0 30.24
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 6 3 2 3*0.0
MEDIA 2 2 2 1
MEDIA 2 3 3 2
MEDIA 2 4 4 3
MEDIA 2 5 5 4
MEDIA 2 6 6 5
BOUNDARY 6
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=500 2 6 END BIAS
In the KENO V.a input, the first REFLECTOR
description generates
five regions around the ARRAY
, each region being 3.0 cm thick in the
+X, X, +Y, Y, and Z directions, and of zero thickness in the
+Z direction. This defines a total thickness of 15 cm of reflector
material on the appropriate faces. The second REFLECTOR
description
generates the last 0.24 cm of material 2 on those faces. Thus, the total
reflector thickness is 15.24 cm on each face of the array, except the
top which has no reflector. Five reflector regions were generated by the
first REFLECTOR
description, and one was generated by the second
REFLECTOR
description; so, six biasing regions must be defined in
the biasing data. Thus, the beginning bias ID
is 2, and the ending
bias ID is 7.
In the KENOVI input, the first CUBOID
in Unit 2 represents the
boundary for the ARRAY
. The next four CUBOID
s represent the
first four regions around the ARRAY
, each region being 3.0 cm thick
in the +X, X, +Y, Y, and Z directions, and of zero thickness in the
+Z direction. A total thickness of 12 cm of reflector material is on the
appropriate faces. The last CUBOID
represents the last 3.24 cm of
material 2 on those faces. Thus, the total reflector thickness is
15.24 cm on each face of the array, except the top which has no
reflector. The beginning bias ID is 2, and the ending bias ID is 6. The
last region could either be larger or smaller than the recommended
thickness to complete the reflector.
The biasing material ID
and thickness per region are obtained from
Table 8.1.25. The thickness per region should be very nearly the
thickness per region from the table to avoid over biasing in the
reflector. Partial increments at the outer region of a reflector are
exempt from this recommendation. If a biasing function is not to be
applied to a region generated by the REFLECTOR
record, the thickness
per region can be any desired thickness and the biasing data block is
omitted.
EXAMPLE 11. Assume the array of Example 7 has the central unit of the array replaced by a cylinder of material 4, 5 cm in radius and 10 cm tall. Assume a 20 cm thick spherical reflector of material 3 (concrete) is positioned so its inner radius is 65 cm from the center of the array. The minimum inner radius of a spherical reflector for this array is 62.25 cm (\(\sqrt{55^{2} + 25^{2} + 15^{2} }\)). If the inner radius is smaller than this, the problem cannot be described using KENO V.a geometry.
Data description 1, Example 11.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 1 3.75
CUBE 0 1 5.0 5.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 4 1 5.0 5.0 5.0
CUBE 0 1 5.0 5.0
GLOBAL UNIT 2
ARRAY 1 55.0 25.0 15.0
SPHERE 0 1 65.0
REPLICATE 3 2 5.0 4
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3
LOOP 1 1 11 1 1 5 1 1 3 1 2 6 6 1 3 3 1 2 2 1 END LOOP
END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 3.75
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.0 5.0 5.0
CUBOID 2 6P5.0
MEDIA 4 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 55.0 55.0 25.0 25.0 15.0 15.0
SPHERE 2 65.0
SPHERE 3 70.0
SPHERE 4 75.0
SPHERE 5 80.0
SPHERE 6 85.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 6 3 2 3*0.0
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 2 3 2
MEDIA 3 3 4 3
MEDIA 3 4 5 4
MEDIA 3 5 6 5
BOUNDARY 6
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
NUX=11 NUY=5 NUZ=3
LOOP 1 1 11 1 1 5 1 1 3 1 2 6 6 1 3 3 1 2 2 1 END LOOP
END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
UNIT
1 describes the SPHERE
and spacing used in the ARRAY
.
UNIT
2 defines the CYLINDER
located at the center of the
ARRAY
. In KENO V.a, the ARRAY
record defines the origin of the
reflector to be at the center of the ARRAY
, while in KENOVI it
defines the origin of the ARRAY
to be at the center of the GLOBAL
UNIT
. The first SPHERE
in the GLOBAL UNIT
defines the inner
radius of the reflector. The next four SPHERE
and four MEDIA
records of the KENOVI input and the REPLICATE
record of the KENO
V.a input will generate four spherical regions of material 3, each
5.0 cm thick. The data for the BIAS
block is generated in a similar
manner to previous examples, except that concrete (ID=301) is used. The
recommended reflector thickness is 5 cm; this thickness is incorporated
explicitly in the KENOVI model and with 4 repetitions of the 5 cm thick
reflector via REPLICATE
in the KENO V.a model. The first 10 entries
following the word LOOP
fills the 11 \(\times\) 5 \(\times\) 3 ARRAY
with
UNIT
s 1. The next 10 entries position UNIT
2 at the center of
the ARRAY
(X = 6, Y = 3, and Z = 2), replacing the UNIT
1 that
had been placed there by the first 10 entries.
EXAMPLE 12. Assume a data profile such as fission densities is desired
in a cylinder at 0.5 cm intervals in the radial direction and 1.5 cm
intervals axially. The cylinder is composed of material 1 and has a
radius of 5 cm and a height of 15 cm. The REPLICATE
or REFLECTOR
description can be used to generate these regions in KENO V.a. A biasing
data block is not entered because default biasing is desired throughout
the cylinder.
Data description 1, Example 12.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
CYLINDER 1 1 0.5 1.5 0
REFLECTOR 1 1 0.5 1.5 0 9
END GEOM
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.5 1.5 0
CYLINDER 2 1.0 3.0 0
CYLINDER 3 1.5 4.5 0
CYLINDER 4 2.0 6.0 0
CYLINDER 5 2.5 7.5 0
CYLINDER 6 3.0 9.0 0
CYLINDER 7 3.5 10.5 0
CYLINDER 8 4.0 12.0 0
CYLINDER 9 4.5 13.5 0
CYLINDER 10 5.0 15.0 0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 1 1 2 1
MEDIA 1 1 3 2
MEDIA 1 1 4 3
MEDIA 1 1 5 4
MEDIA 1 1 6 5
MEDIA 1 1 7 6
MEDIA 1 1 8 7
MEDIA 1 1 9 8
MEDIA 1 1 10 9
BOUNDARY 10
END GEOM
EXAMPLE 13. (KENOVI due to pipe junctions) Assume a cross composed of two Plexiglas cylinders (material 3) having an inner diameter of 13.335 cm and an outer diameter of 16.19 cm. The bottom and side legs of the cross are closed by a 3.17 cm thick piece of Plexiglas. From the center of the intersection, the bottom and side legs are 91.44 cm long and the top leg is 121.92 cm long. The cross is filled with a UO_{2}F_{2} solution (material 1) to a height of 28.93 cm above the center of the cylinder intersection. The cross is then surrounded by a water reflector (material 2) that extends from the center of the intersection: 111.74 cm in the \(\pm\)X directions, 20.64 cm in the \(\pm\)Y directions, 29.03 cm in the +Z direction, and 118.428 cm in the Z direction. A schematic of the assembly is shown in Fig. 8.1.23.
Data description of Example 13 (KENOVI only).
READ GEOMETRY
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 10 13.335 28.93 88.27
CYLINDER 20 13.335 121.92 88.27
CYLINDER 30 16.19 121.92 91.44
YCYLINDER 40 13.335 88.27 88.27
YCYLINDER 50 16.19 91.44 91.44
CUBOID 60 2P111.74 2P20.64 29.03 118.428
CUBOID 70 2P111.74 2P20.64 121.92 118.428
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 0 1 20 10
MEDIA 3 1 30 20 40
MEDIA 1 1 40 10
MEDIA 3 1 50 40 30
MEDIA 2 1 60 30 50
MEDIA 0 1 70 30 60
BOUNDARY 70
END GEOMETRY
EXAMPLE 14. (KENOVI only because of rotation) Assume a Yshaped aluminum cylinder (material 2) with a 13.95 cm inner radius and a 0.16 cm wall thickness is filled with a UO_{2}F_{2} solution (material 1). From the center where the Y intersects the cylinder, the bottom leg is 76.7 cm long, the top leg is 135.4 cm long, and the Y leg is 126.04 cm long, canted at a 29.26degree angle. The bottom of the bottom leg and the top of the Y leg are sealed with 1.3 cm caps. The Y cylinder is filled to a height of 52.8 cm above the center where the Y leg intersects the vertical cylinder. The cylinder is surrounded by a water reflector (material 3) that extends out 37.0 cm in the \(\pm\)pm`Y direction, and 135.4 and 99.6 in the \(\pm\).
Data description of Example 14 (KENOVI only).
READ GEOMETRY
GLOBAL UNIT 1
COM='30 DEG Y CYLINDER'
CYLINDER 10 13.95 135.4 75.4
CYLINDER 20 14.11 135.4 76.7
CYLINDER 30 13.95 124.74 0.0 ROTATE A2=29.26
CYLINDER 40 14.11 126.04 0.0 ROTATE A2=29.26
CUBOID 50 2P37.0 100.0 37.0 52.8 75.4
CUBOID 60 2P37.0 100.0 37.0 135.4 99.6
MEDIA 1 1 10 50
MEDIA 2 1 20 10 30
MEDIA 1 1 30 50 10
MEDIA 2 1 40 30 20
MEDIA 0 1 10 50
MEDIA 0 1 30 50 10
MEDIA 3 1 60 20 40
BOUNDARY 60
END GEOMETRY
8.1.4.6.1. Use of holes in the geometry
Sect. 8.1.4.6 tells how each KENO V.a geometry region in a UNIT
must completely enclose all previously described regions in that
UNIT
and how KENOVI geometry allows regions in a UNIT
to
intersect, thus eliminating the need for HOLE
s. HOLE
s can be
used to circumvent the complete enclosure restriction in KENO V.a to
some degree. In KENOVI, they can be useful in simplifying the input of
a problem and decreasing the total CPU time needed for a problem.
A HOLE
is a means of placing an entire UNIT
within a geometry
region. A separate HOLE
description is required for every location
in a geometry region where a UNIT
is to be placed. The information
contained in a HOLE
description is (1) the keyword HOLE
, (2) the
UNIT
number of the UNIT
to be placed, and (3) any modification
data needed to correctly position and rotate (in KENOVI) the specified
UNIT
within the containing UNIT
. In KENO V.a, a HOLE
is
placed inside the geometry region that precedes it. This excludes
HOLE
s … (i.e., if a CUBE
geometry region is followed by four
HOLE
descriptions, all four HOLE
s are located within the
CUBE
). In KENO V.a, HOLE
s are subject to the restriction that
they cannot intersect any other geometry region. HOLE
s can be
nested to any depth (see Sect. 8.1.4.6.2). It is not advisable to use
HOLE
s tangent to other HOLE
s or geometry, because roundoff
error may cause them to overlap. It is not uncommon for a problem that
runs on one type of computer to fail on another type using the same
data. Therefore, it is recommended that tangency and boundaries shared
with HOLE
s be avoided. This may be accomplished by separating the
otherwise collocated or tangent surfaces by a very small (i.e.,
10^{6} cm) distance.
In KENO V.a, tracking in regions that contain holes is less efficient than tracking in regions that do not contain holes. Therefore, holes should be used only when the system cannot be easily described by conventional methods. One example of the use of holes is shown in Fig. 8.1.25, representing nine closepacked rods in an annulus.
In KENOVI, tracking in regions that contain HOLE
s can be more
efficient than tracking in regions that do not contain HOLE
s
because every region boundary in a UNIT
must be checked for a
crossing whenever a crossing is possible. Putting small but complex
geometries in a hole will lessen the number of boundaries that need to
be checked for possible crossings. However, the indiscriminate use of
holes is not advised since the particle must change coordinate systems
every time a hole is entered or exited. Therefore, holes should be used
carefully and only when the system can be simplified significantly by
their use.
EXAMPLE 15. One example of a unit that requires holes in KENO V.a is better described not using holes in KENOVI as shown in Fig. 8.1.25, representing nine closepacked rods in an annulus. The large rods are 1.4 cm in radius and composed of mixture 3. The small rods are 0.6 cm in radius and composed of mixture 1. The inside radius of the annulus is 3.6 cm, and the outside radius is 3.8 cm. The annulus is made of mixture 2. The rods and annulus are both 30 cm long. The annulus is centered in a cuboid having an 8 cm^{2} cross section and a length of 32 cm. The black and gray areas in Fig. 8.1.25 are void.
Data description of Example 15.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 0.6 2P15.0
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 3 1 1.4 2P15.0
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15.0
HOLE 2 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 2 2.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 2 2.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P4.0 2P16.0
END GEOM
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 3 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 4 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 5 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 6 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0
CYLINDER 7 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=2.0
CYLINDER 8 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0
CYLINDER 9 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=2.0
CYLINDER 10 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 11 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 12 4P4.0 2P16.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 1 1 2
MEDIA 1 1 3
MEDIA 1 1 4
MEDIA 1 1 5
MEDIA 3 1 6
MEDIA 3 1 7
MEDIA 3 1 8
MEDIA 3 1 9
MEDIA 0 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
MEDIA 2 1 11 10
MEDIA 0 1 12 11
BOUNDARY 12
END GEOM
The first HOLE
description in the KENO V.a input represents the
bottom large rod. It takes UNIT
2 and places its ORIGIN
at
(0.0,2.0,0.0) relative to the ORIGIN
of UNIT
3. The second
HOLE
description represents the small rod to the right of the large
rod just discussed. It places the origin of UNIT
1 at (2.0,2.0,0.0)
in UNIT
3. The third HOLE
description represents the large rod
to the right. It places the origin of UNIT
2 at (2.0,0.0,0.0) in
UNIT
3. This procedure is repeated in a counterclockwise direction
until all eight rods have been placed within the region that defines the
inner surface of the annulus. The CYLINDER
that defines the outer
surface of the annulus is described after all the HOLE
s for the
previous region have been placed. Then the outer CUBOID
is
described. This example illustrates that a UNIT
that is to be placed
using a HOLE
description need not have a CUBE
or CUBOID
as
its last region. Note that including the central rod directly in
UNIT
3 reduces the CPU time required for transport compared to the
case of all 9 rods being inserted as HOLE
s. It is also important
that the 9 HOLE
s are inserted after the void cylinder into which
they are inserted. Entering the HOLE
s in any other position in the
input would generated region intersection errors. The order of the HOLE
records in any given region is not important, as they can be
interchanged with each other randomly. However, they must always appear
immediately after the region in which they are placed.
The KENOVI input does not need to use HOLE
s. The first
CYLINDER
description in this case represents the middle small rod.
The next four CYLINDER
records describe the four remaining small
rods surrounding the middle rod. The ORIGIN
attribute is used to
shift the origin of each CYLINDER
to the appropriate location. The
following four CYLINDER
records represent the four large rods.
Again, the ORIGIN
attribute is used to shift the ORIGIN
of each
CYLINDER
to the appropriate location. Only the nonzero dimensions
need to be entered in the ORIGIN
data. The tenth CYLINDER
record
is the void in the annulus that contains the rods. The last CYLINDER
record defines the outer surface of the annulus. Finally, the CUBOID
record describes the surrounding UNIT
boundary.
In KENOVI, holes may not extend across any array outer boundary, may not intersect with other holes, and may not cross the host UNIT outer boundary. Thus a hole may be placed so that it crosses several regions within an array. The hole description replaces the unit description within the hole domain. Since the holes are placed using the host UNIT coordinate system, the location of the hole record in the unit definition is not relevant.
An array of the arrangement shown in Fig. 8.1.25 can be easily described by altering the array description data. For example, a 5 \(\times\) 3 \(\times\) 2 array of these shapes with a centertocenter spacing of 8 cm in X and Y and 32 cm in Z can be achieved by using the following array data:
READ ARRAY NUX=5 NUY=3 NUZ=2 FILL F3 END FILL END ARRAY
or
READ ARRAY NUX=5 NUY=3 NUZ=2 FILL 30*3 END FILL END ARRAY
or
READ ARRAY NUX=5 NUY=3 NUZ=2 LOOP 3 1 5 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 END LOOP END ARRAY
8.1.4.6.2. Nesting holes
This section illustrates how holes are nested. Holes can be nested to any level. Consider the configuration illustrated in Fig. 8.1.25 and replace the large rods with a complicated geometric arrangement. The resulting Fig. is shown in Fig. 8.1.26. Fig. 8.1.27 shows the complicated geometric arrangement that replaced the large rods of Fig. 8.1.25. Fig. 8.1.28 shows a component of the arrangement shown in Fig. 8.1.26.
EXAMPLE 16. There is no predetermined preferred method to create a
geometry mockup for a given physical system. The user should determine
the most convenient order. To describe the configuration shown in Fig. 8.1.26
using nested HOLE
s, it is likely most convenient to start
the geometry mockup at the deepest nesting level, as shown in
Fig. 8.1.27. The small CYLINDER
s are composed of mixture 1, and
they are each 0.1 cm in radius and 30 cm long. There are five small
CYLINDER
s used in Fig. 8.1.28. Their centers are located at
(0,0,0) for the central one, at (0,0.4,0) for the bottom one, at
(0.4,0,0) for the right one, at (0,0.4,0) for the top one, and at
(0.4,0,0) for the left one. The rectangular parallelepipeds
(CUBOID
s) are composed of mixture 2. Each one is 30 cm long and
0.1 cm by 0.2 cm in cross section. The large CYLINDER
containing the
configuration is composed of mixture 3, is 30 cm long and has a radius
of 0.5 cm.
A possible geometry mockup for this system is described as follows in KENO V.a:
define a small cylinder to be
UNIT
1,(2) define a small
CUBOID
with its length in the X direction to beUNIT
2,(3) define a small
CUBOID
with its length in the Y direction to beUNIT
3,(4) define
UNIT
4 to be the large cylinder and place theCYLINDER
s andCUBOID
s in it usingHOLE
s.
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 0.1 2P15.0
UNIT 2
CUBOID 2 1 2P0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0
UNIT 3
CUBOID 2 1 2P0.05 2P0.1 2P15.0
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 1 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 3 1 0.5 2P15.0
HOLE 1 0.0 0.4 0.0
HOLE 1 0.4 0.0 0.0
HOLE 1 0.0 0.4 0.0
HOLE 1 0.4 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.2 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.2 0.0 0.0
HOLE 3 0.0 0.2 0.0
HOLE 3 0.0 0.2 0.0
The first cylinder description in UNIT
4 places the central rod,
the second cylinder description in UNIT
4 places the outer cylinder,
the first HOLE
places the bottom CYLINDER
,
the second HOLE
places the CYLINDER
at the right,
the third HOLE
places the top CYLINDER
,
the fourth HOLE
places the CYLINDER
at the left,
the fifth HOLE
places the left CUBOID
whose length is in X,
the sixth HOLE
places the right CUBOID
whose length is in X,
the seventh HOLE
places the bottom CUBOID
whose length is in
Y, and
the eighth HOLE
places the top CUBOID
whose length is in Y.
A possible geometry mockup for this system is described as follows in KENOVI:
define
UNIT
1 to contain the five small cylinders and four blocks,define
UNIT
2 to contain the next two largersized cylinders andUNIT
1 asHOLE
s, anddefine
GLOBAL UNIT
3 to contain the large cylinders andUNIT
2 asHOLE
s.
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.4
CYLINDER 3 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.4
CYLINDER 4 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.4
CYLINDER 5 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.4
CUBOID 6 0.3 0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0
CUBOID 7 0.3 0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0
CUBOID 8 2P0.05 0.3 0.1 2P15.0
CUBOID 9 2P0.05 0.3 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 10 0.5 2P15.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 1 1 2
MEDIA 1 1 3
MEDIA 1 1 4
MEDIA 1 1 5
MEDIA 2 1 6
MEDIA 2 1 7
MEDIA 2 1 8
MEDIA 2 1 9
MEDIA 3 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
BOUNDARY 10
geometry record 1 places the central rod,
geometry record 2 places the bottom CYLINDER
,
geometry record 3 places the CYLINDER
at the right,
geometry record 4 places the top CYLINDER
,
geometry record 5 places the CYLINDER
at the left,
geometry record 6 places the left CUBOID
whose length is in X,
geometry record 7 places the right CUBOID
whose length is in X,
geometry record 8 places the bottom CUBOID
whose length is in Y,
geometry record 9 places the top CUBOID
whose length is in Y, and
geometry record 10 is the surrounding CYLINDER
that defines the
unit boundary.
In Fig. 8.1.27, the large plain cylinders are composed of mixture 1 and
are 0.5 cm in radius and 30 cm long. The cylindrical component of
UNIT
4 for KENO V.a or UNIT
1 for KENOVI is the same size: an
outer radius of 0.5 cm and a length of 30 cm. The small cylinders
located in the interstices between the large cylinders are composed of
mixture 2, are 0.2 cm in radius, and are 30 cm long. The annulus is
composed of mixture 4, has a 1.3 cm inside radius and a 1.4 cm outer
radius. The volume between the inner cylinders is void. The large
cylinders each have a radius of 0.5 cm and are tangent. Therefore, their
origins are offset from the origin of the UNIT
by 0.707107. This is
from X^{2} + Y^{2} = 1.0, where X and Y are equal.
For KENO V.a, define UNIT
5 to be the large plain cylinder,
UNIT
6 to be the small cylinder, and UNIT
7 as the annulus that
contains the cylinders. Its origin is at its center. The geometry mockup
for this portion of the problem follows:
KENO V.a:
UNIT 5
CYLINDER 1 1 0.5 2P15.0
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 2 1 0.2 2P15.0
UNIT 7
CYLINDER 2 1 0.2 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 1.3 2P15.0
HOLE 5 0.707107 0.0 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 4 0.0 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 5 0.707107 0.0 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 4 0.0 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
CYLINDER 4 1 1.4 2P15.0
The first HOLE
places the larger CYLINDER
of mixture 1 at the
right with its origin at (0.707107,0.0,0.0),
the second HOLE
places the small CYLINDER
in the upper right
quadrant,
the third HOLE
places the top CYLINDER
that contains the
geometric component defined in UNIT
4,
the fourth HOLE
places the small CYLINDER
in the upper left
quadrant,
the fifth HOLE
places the larger CYLINDER
of mixture 1 at the
left,
the sixth HOLE
places the small CYLINDER
in the lower lower
left quadrant,
the seventh HOLE
places the bottom CYLINDER
that contains the
geometric component defined in UNIT
4, and
the eighth HOLE
places the small CYLINDER
in the lower right
quadrant.
The last CYLINDER
defines the outer surface of the annulus.
For KENOVI, UNIT
2 is the annulus that contains the cylinders.
KENOVI:
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 0.2 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 3 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 4 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 5 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 6 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107
CYLINDER 7 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107
CYLINDER 10 1.3 2P15.0
CYLINDER 11 1.4 2P15.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 4
MEDIA 2 1 5
MEDIA 1 1 6
MEDIA 1 1 7
HOLE 1 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
HOLE 1 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
MEDIA 0 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MEDIA 4 1 11 10
BOUNDARY 11
In Unit 2 of the above KENOVI geometry,
CYLINDER
1 places a small CYLINDER
of mixture 2 at the origin,
CYLINDER
2 places the small CYLINDER
of mixture 2 in the upper
right quadrant,
CYLINDER
3 places the small CYLINDER
of mixture 2 in the upper
left quadrant,
CYLINDER
4 places the small CYLINDER
of mixture 2 in the lower
left quadrant,
CYLINDER
5 places the small CYLINDER
of mixture 2 in the lower
right quadrant,
CYLINDER
6 places the larger CYLINDER
of mixture 1 at the
right with its origin at (0.707107,0.0,0.0),
CYLINDER
7 places the larger CYLINDER
of mixture 1 at the left
with its origin at (0.0,0.707107.0.0),
CYLINDER
10 defines the inner surface of the annulus,
CYLINDER
11 defines the outer surface of the annulus and the
UNIT
boundary,
the first HOLE
places the top CYLINDER
that contains the
geometric component defined in UNIT
1, and
the second HOLE
places the bottom CYLINDER
that contains the
geometric component defined in UNIT
1.
To complete the geometry mockup, consider Fig. 8.1.26.
For KENO V.a geometry, define UNIT
8 to be a cylinder of mixture 2
having a radius of 0.6 cm and a length of 30 cm. Define UNIT
9 to be
the central rod and the large annulus of 3.6 cm inner radius, 3.8 cm
outer radius, and 30 cm length centered in a CUBOID
having an 8
cm^{2} cross section and being 32 cm long.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 8
CYLINDER 2 1 0.6 2P15.0
UNIT 9
CYLINDER 2 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15
HOLE 7 2.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2*2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 2.0 2*0.0
HOLE 8 2*2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2P2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P4.0 2P16.0
In UNIT
9 of the KENO V.a description, the first CYLINDER
defines the rod of mixture 2, centered in the annulus. The second
CYLINDER
defines the void volume between the central rod and the
annulus.
The first HOLE
places the composite annulus of UNIT
7 to the
right of the central rod,
the second HOLE
places a rod defined by UNIT
8 in the upper
right quadrant of the annulus,
the third HOLE
places the composite annulus of UNIT
7 above
the central rod,
the fourth HOLE
places a rod defined by UNIT
8 in the upper
left quadrant of the annulus,
the fifth HOLE
places the composite annulus of UNIT
7 to the
left of the central rod,
the sixth HOLE
places a rod defined by UNIT
8 in the lower
left quadrant,
the seventh HOLE
places the composite annulus of UNIT
7 below
the central rod, and
the eighth HOLE
places a rod defined by UNIT
8 in the lower
right quadrant.
The last CYLINDER
defines the outer surface of the annulus. The
outer CUBOID
is the last region.
For KENOVI geometry, define UNIT
3 to be the central rod and four
outer rods of 0.6 cm radius and 30.0 cm length, and the large annulus of
3.6 cm inner radius, 3.8 cm outer radius, and 30 cm length centered in a
cuboid having an 8 cm^{2} cross section and a length of 32 cm.
KENOVI:
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 3 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 4 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 5 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 10 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 11 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 12 4P4.0 2P16.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 4
MEDIA 2 1 5
HOLE 2 ORIGEN X=2
HOLE 2 ORIGEN Y=2
HOLE 2 ORIGEN X=2
HOLE 2 ORIGEN Y=2
MEDIA 0 1 10 1 2 3 4 5
MEDIA 4 1 11 10
MEDIA 0 1 12 11
BOUNDARY 12
In UNIT
3 of the above KENOVI description,
CYLINDER
1 defines the rod of mixture 2, centered in the annulus,
CYLINDER
2 places a rod of mixture 2 in the upper right quadrant
of the annulus,
CYLINDER
3 places a rod of mixture 2 in the upper left quadrant of
the annulus,
CYLINDER
4 places a rod of mixture 2 in the lower left quadrant,
CYLINDER
5 places a rod of mixture 2 in the lower right quadrant,
CYLINDER
10 defines the void volume between the central rod and
the annulus,
CYLINDER
11 defines the outer surface of the annulus,
CUBOID
12 defines the unit boundary,
the first HOLE
places UNIT
2 to the right of the central rod,
the second HOLE
places UNIT
2 above the central rod,
the third HOLE
places UNIT
2 to the left of the central rod,
and
the fourth HOLE
places UNIT
2 below the central rod.
This problem illustrates three levels of HOLE
nesting. The total
input data for the problem is given below. The geometry description
accurately recreates the geometry arrangement of Fig. 8.1.26. The 2D
color plot output is shown in Fig. 8.1.29.
KENO V.a:
NESTED HOLES SAMPLE
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 0.1 2P15.0
UNIT 2
CUBOID 2 1 2P0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0
UNIT 3
CUBOID 2 1 2P0.05 2P0.1 2P15.0
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 1 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 3 1 0.5 2P15.0
HOLE 1 0.0 0.4 0.0
HOLE 1 0.4 0.0 0.0
HOLE 1 0.0 0.4 0.0
HOLE 1 0.4 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.2 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.2 0.0 0.0
HOLE 3 0.0 0.2 0.0
HOLE 3 0.0 0.2 0.0
UNIT 5
CYLINDER 1 1 0.5 2P15.0
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 2 1 0.2 2P15.0
UNIT 7
CYLINDER 2 1 0.2 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 1.3 2P15.0
HOLE 5 0.707107 2*0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 4 0.0 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 5 0.707107 0.0 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 4 0.0 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
CYLINDER 4 1 1.4 2P15.0
UNIT 8
CYLINDER 2 1 0.6 2P15.0
GLOBAL UNIT 9
CYLINDER 2 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15.0
HOLE 7 2.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2*2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 2.0 2*0.0
HOLE 8 2*2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2P2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P4.0 2P16.0
END GEOM
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. NESTED HOLES'
XUL=0.1 YUL=8.1 ZUL=16.0
XLR=8.1 YLR=0.1 ZLR=16
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=260 NCH=' *.X' SCR=NO
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.4
CYLINDER 3 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.4
CYLINDER 4 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.4
CYLINDER 5 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.4
CUBOID 6 0.3 0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0
CUBOID 7 0.3 0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0
CUBOID 8 2P0.05 0.3 0.1 2P15.0
CUBOID 9 2P0.05 0.3 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 10 0.5 2P15.0
MEDIA 1 1 1 6 7 8 9
MEDIA 1 1 2 8
MEDIA 1 1 3 7
MEDIA 1 1 4 9
MEDIA 1 1 5 6
MEDIA 2 1 6 1 5
MEDIA 2 1 7 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 8 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 9 1 4
MEDIA 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
BOUNDARY 10
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 0.2 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 3 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 4 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 5 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 6 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107
CYLINDER 7 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107
CYLINDER 10 1.3 2P15.0
CYLINDER 11 1.4 2P15.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 4
MEDIA 2 1 5
MEDIA 1 1 6
MEDIA 1 1 7
HOLE 1 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
HOLE 1 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
MEDIA 0 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MEDIA 4 1 11 10
BOUNDARY 11
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 3 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 4 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 5 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 10 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 11 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 12 4P4.0 2P16.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 4
MEDIA 2 1 5
HOLE 2 ORIGIN X=2
HOLE 2 ORIGIN Y=2
HOLE 2 ORIGIN X=2
HOLE 2 ORIGIN Y=2
MEDIA 0 1 10 1 2 3 4 5
MEDIA 4 1 11 10
MEDIA 0 1 12 11
BOUNDARY 12
END GEOM
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. NESTED HOLES'
XUL=4.1 YUL=4.1 ZUL=0.0
XLR=4.1 YLR=4.1 ZLR=0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=800
END PLOT
END DATA
END
8.1.4.6.3. Multiple arrays
EXAMPLE 17. Sect. 8.1.4.6 demonstrates how UNIT
s are composed of
geometry regions and how these UNIT
s can be stacked in an
ARRAY
. This same procedure can be extended to create multiple
ARRAY
s. Furthermore, ARRAY
s can be used as building blocks
within other ARRAY
s.
Consider Sample Problem 19 from Sect. 8.1.8.3. This problem is a critical experiment consisting of a composite array [Tho64, Tho73] of four highly enriched uranium metal cylinders and four cylindrical Plexiglas containers filled with uranyl nitrate solution. A photograph of the experiment is given in Fig. 8.1.235. The coordinate system is defined to be Z up the page, Y across the page, and X out of the page.
The Plexiglas containers have an inside radius of 9.525 cm and an
outside radius of 10.16 cm. The inside height is 17.78 cm, and the
outside height is 19.05 cm. Four of these containers are stacked with a
centertocenter spacing of 21.75 cm in the Y direction and 20.48 cm in
the Z direction (vertical). This arrangement of four Plexiglas
containers can be described as follows: mixture 2 is the uranyl nitrate
and mixture 3 is Plexiglas, so the Plexiglas container with its
appropriate spacing CUBOID
can be described as UNIT
1. This
considers the ARRAY
to be bare and suspended with no supports.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 2 1 9.525 2P8.89
CYLINDER 3 1 10.16 2P9.525
CUBOID 0 1 4P10.875 2P10.24
KENOVI:
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 9.525 2P8.89
CYLINDER 2 10.16 2P9.525
CUBOID 3 4P10.875 2P10.24
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
The ARRAY
of four Plexiglas containers can be described as
ARRAY
1 in the array data as follows:
ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL
The four metal cylinders, comprised of mixture 1, each have a radius of
5.748 cm and are 10.765 cm tall. They have a centertocenter spacing of
13.18 cm in the Y direction and 12.45 cm in the Z direction (vertical).
Thus, one of the metal cylinders with its appropriate spacing CUBOID
can be described as UNIT
2. This ARRAY
is also considered to be
bare and unsupported.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 2P5.3825
CUBOID 0 1 4P6.59 2P6.225
KENOVI:
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.748 2P5.3825
CUBOID 2 4P6.59 2P6.225
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
The array of four metal cylinders can be described as ARRAY
2 in the
array data.
ARA=2 NUX=1 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F2 END FILL
Now two ARRAY
s have been described. The overall dimensions of the
ARRAY
of Plexiglas containers are 21.75 cm in X, 43.5 cm in Y, and
40.96 cm in Z. The overall dimensions of the ARRAY
of metal
cylinders are 13.18 cm in X, 26.36 cm in Y, and 24.9 cm in Z.
In order to describe the composite ARRAY
, these two ARRAY
s
must be positioned within UNIT
s and stacked together into one
ARRAY
. In order for them to be stacked into one ARRAY
, the
adjacent faces must match. This is accomplished by defining a UNIT
3
which contains ARRAY
1, the ARRAY
of Plexiglas solution
containers. The overall dimensions of this UNIT
are 21.75 cm in X,
43.5 cm in Y, and 40.96 cm in Z. These dimensions are calculated by the
code and need not be specified. UNIT
3 is defined as follows:
KENO V.a:
UNIT 3
ARRAY 1 3*0.0
KENOVI:
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 2P10.875 2P21.75 2P20.48
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 0.0 10.875 10.24
BOUNDARY 1
The ARRAY
of metal cylinders will be defined to be UNIT
4.
However, this ARRAY
is 17.14 cm smaller in the Y and 16.06 cm
smaller in the Z dimensions than the ARRAY
of Plexiglas UNIT
s.
Therefore, a void region must be placed around the ARRAY
in those
directions so UNIT
4 and UNIT
3 will be the same size in Y and
Z.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 4
ARRAY 2 3*0.0
REPLICATE 0 1 2*0.0 2*8.57 2*8.03 1
KENOVI:
Now that UNIT
3 and UNIT
4 have been defined, they must be
placed in the global or universe ARRAY
to define the physical
arrangement of the eight pieces. This procedure is implemented via a
GLOBAL
ARRAY
in KENO V.a, while KENOVI uses a GLOBAL UNIT
3
as follows:
KENO V.a:
GBL=3 ARA=3 NUX=2 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 4 3 END FILL
KENOVI:
GLOBAL UNIT 5
CUBOID 1 34.93 0.0 43.5 0.0 40.96 0.0
ARRAY 3 1 PLACE 1 1 1 6.59 21.75 20.48
BOUNDARY 1
The description of ARRAY
3 in KENOVI is identical to that shown for
KENO V.a.
This completes the geometry description for the problem. The complete geometry input description for the problem is given below.
KENO V.a:
=KENOVA
SAMPLE PROBLEM 19 4 AQUEOUS 4 METAL ARRAY OF ARRAYS
READ PARAM LIB=4 RUN=NO END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1
MIX=1
1092238 3.2275e3
1092235 4.4802e2
MIX=2
20011023 5.81e2
2007014 1.9753e3
2008016 3.6927e2
20092235 9.8471e4
20092238 7.7697e5
MIX=3
11006012 3.5552e2
11011023 5.6884e2
11008016 1.4221e2
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 2 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 3 1 10.16 2P9.525
CUBOID 0 1 4P10.875 2P10.24
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 2P5.3825
CUBOID 0 1 4P6.59 2P6.225
UNIT 3
ARRAY 1 3*0.0
UNIT 4
ARRAY 2 3*0.0
REPLICATE 0 1 2*0.0 2*8.57 2*8.03 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=1 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F2 END FILL
GBL=3 ARA=3 NUX=2 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 4 3 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ PLOT TTL='XY SLICE AT Z=10.24'
XUL=1.0 YUL=44.5 ZUL=10.24
XLR=35.93 YLR=1.0 ZLR=10.24
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 PIC=MIX END
TTL='XZ SLICE AT Y=10.875'
XUL=1.0 YUL=10.875 ZUL=41.96 XLR=35.93 YLR=10.875 ZLR=1.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 PIC=MIX END END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
SAMPLE PROBLEM 19 4 AQUEOUS 4 METAL ARRAY OF ARRAYS
READ PARAM
LIB=4 FLX=YES FDN=YES NUB=YES SMU=YES MKP=YES MKU=YES FMP=YES FMU=YES
END PARAM
READ MIXT
SCT=2
MIX=1
1092234 4.82717E04
1092235 4.47971E02
1092236 9.57233E05
1092238 2.65767E03
MIX=2
2001001 5.77931E02
2007014 2.13092E03
2008016 3.74114E02
2092234 1.06784E05
2092235 9.84602E04
2092236 5.29386E06
2092238 6.19414E05
MIX=3
11001001 5.67873E02
11006000 3.54921E02
11008016 1.41968E02
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 9.525 2P8.89
CYLINDER 2 10.16 2P9.525
CUBOID 3 4P10.875 2P10.24
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.748 2P5.3825
CUBOID 2 4P6.59 2P6.225
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 2P10.875 2P21.75 2P20.48
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 0.0 10.875 10.24
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 4
CUBOID 1 2P6.59 2P13.18 2P12.45
CUBOID 2 2P6.59 2P21.75 2P20.48
ARRAY 2 1 PLACE 1 1 1 0.0 6.59 6.225
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY
GLOBAL UNIT 5
CUBOID 1 34.93 0.0 43.5 0.0 40.96 0.0
ARRAY 3 1 PLACE 1 1 1 6.59 21.75 20.48
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=1 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F2 END FILL
GBL=3 ARA=3 NUX=2 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 4 3 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ PLOT TTL='XY SLICE AT Z=10.24'
XUL=1.0 YUL=44.5 ZUL=10.24
XLR=35.93 YLR=1.0 ZLR=10.24
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=130 NCH=' *.' PIC=MIX END
TTL='XZ SLICE AT Y=10.875'
XUL=1.0 YUL=10.875 ZUL=41.96
XLR=35.93 YLR=10.875 ZLR=1.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 PIC=MIX END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
A plot of an XY slice taken through the bottom layer of the array is shown in Fig. 8.1.30. A plot of an XZ slice taken through the +Y half of the array is shown in Fig. 8.1.31. These plots were used to verify the geometry mockup.
STORAGE ARRAY
EXAMPLE 18. Consider a storage array of highly enriched uranium buttons, each 1 in. tall and 4 in. in diameter. These buttons are stored on stainless steel shelves with a centertocenter spacing of 60.96 cm (2 ft) between them in the Y direction, and only one button on each shelf in the X direction. The shelves are 0.635 cm (^{1}/_{4}in.) thick (Z dimension), 45.72 cm (18 in.) wide (X dimension), 609.6 cm (20 ft) long (Y dimension), and are 45.72 cm (18 in.) from the top of a shelf to the bottom of the shelf above it. Each rack of storage shelves is four shelves high, with the first shelf being 15.24 cm (6 in.) above the floor. The storage room is 586.56 cm (19.5 ft) in the X direction by 1293.44 cm (43 ft) in the Y direction with 365.76 cm (12 ft. ) ceilings in the Z direction. The walls, ceiling, and floor are composed of concrete, 30.48 cm (1 ft) thick. All the aisles between the storage racks are 91.44 cm (3 ft) wide. The racks are arranged with their length in the Y direction and an aisle between them. The arrays of racks are arranged with two in the Y direction and five in the X direction. Mixture 1 is the uranium metal, mixture 2 is the stainless steel, and mixture 3 is the concrete.
The metal button and its centertocenter spacing are described first. The void vertical spacing has arbitrarily been chosen to extend from the bottom of the button to the next shelf above the button. The shelf of stainless steel is described under the button.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 1
COM='METAL BUTTONS'
CYLINDER 1 1 5.08 2.54 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P22.86 2P30.48 45.72 0.0
CUBOID 2 1 2P22.86 2P30.48 45.72 0.635
KENOVI:
ARRAY
1 creates an ARRAY
of these buttons that fills one shelf.
UNIT
2 then contains one of the shelves shown in Fig. 8.1.32.
KENO V.a:
ARA=1 COM='SINGLE SHELF CONTAINING 10 METAL BUTTONS'
NUX=1 NUY=10 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
UNIT 2
COM='SINGLE SHELF (1 X 10 X 1 ARRAY OF METAL BUTTONS ON A SHELF)'
ARRAY 1 3*0.0
KENOVI:
ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=10 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 45.72 0.0 609.60 0.0 46.355 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 22.86 30.48 0.635
BOUNDARY 1
Note
The origin of UNIT
2 is on the bottom of the bottom shelf; it
has been moved from the bottom of the button. The X and Y position of
the origin is at the front, lefthand corner of the bottom of this
lowest shelf.
Stack four UNIT
2s vertically to obtain one of the racks shown in
Fig. 8.1.32. One rack is defined by array 2.
ARA=2 COM='SINGLE RACK OF 4 SHELVES'
NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=4 FILL F2 END FILL
Generate a UNIT
3 that contains a rack of shelves and a UNIT
4
that is the aisle between the ends of the two racks in the Y direction.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 3
COM='SINGLE RACK (4 SHELVES TALL)'
ARRAY 2 3*0.0
UNIT 4
COM='CENTRAL AISLE UNIT SAME HEIGHT AS 4 SHELVES'
CUBOID 0 1 2P22.86 2P45.72 185.42 0.0
KENOVI:
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 45.72 0.0 609.60 0.0 185.42 0.0
ARRAY 2 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 4
CUBOID 1 2P22.86 2P45.72 185.42 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
Stack UNIT
s 3 and 4 together in the Y direction to create
UNIT
5 which contains both racks in the Y direction and the aisle
between them. This configuration is shown in Fig. 8.1.32.
KENO V.a:
ARA=3 COM='TWO RACKS END TO END WITH CENTRAL AISLE'
NUX=1 NUY=3 NUZ=1 FILL 3 4 3 END FILL
UNIT 5
COM='SET OF TWO RACKS END TO END SEPARATED BY THE CENTRAL AISLE'
ARRAY 3 3*0.0
KENOVI:
ARA=3 NUX=1 NUY=3 NUZ=1 FILL 3 4 3 END FILL
UNIT 5
CUBOID 1 45.72 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
ARRAY 3 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
Create a UNIT
6, which is an aisle 91.44 cm (3 ft) wide in the
X direction and 1310.64 cm (43 ft) in the Y direction (full length of
the room).
KENO V.a:
UNIT 6
COM='AISLE BETWEEN ADJACENT SETS OF TWO RACKS & CENTRAL AISLE (UNITS 5)'
CUBOID 0 1 91.44 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
KENOVI:
UNIT 6
CUBOID 1 91.44 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
Stack UNIT
s 5 and 6 in the X direction to achieve the array of
racks in the room. Then put the 6 in. spacing below the bottom of the
racks, the spacing between the top of the top rack and the ceiling, and
add the concrete floor, walls, and ceiling around the array. ARRAY
4
describes the array of racks in the room. ARRAY
record (first
CUBOID
description in KENOVI) encompasses this ARRAY
, and the
first REFLECTOR
(second CUBOID
in KENOVI) descriptions are used
to add the spacing between the top rack and the ceiling. The last two
REFLECTOR
(CUBOID
s 3 through 9 in KENOVI) descriptions add
the ceiling, walls, and floor in 5.0 cm increments to bias the concrete.
A perspective of the room is shown in Fig. 8.1.33.
KENO V.a:
ARA=4 COM='ENTIRE STORAGE ARRAY'
NUX=9 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 5 6 3Q2 5 END FILL
GLOBAL
UNIT 7
COM='STORAGE ARRAY IN THE ROOM WITH WALLS, FLOOR AND CEILING'
ARRAY 4 3*0.0
REFLECTOR 0 1 4*0.0 165.1 15.24 1
REFLECTOR 3 2 6*5.0 6
REFLECTOR 3 8 6*0.48 1
KENOVI:
GBL=4 ARA=4 NUX=9 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 5 6 3Q2 5 END FILL
GLOBAL UNIT 7
CUBOID 1 594.36 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
CUBOID 2 594.36 0.0 1310.64 0.0 350.52 15.24
CUBOID 3 599.36 5.00 1315.64 5.00 355.52 20.24
CUBOID 4 604.36 10.00 1320.64 10.00 360.52 25.24
CUBOID 5 609.36 15.00 1325.64 15.00 365.52 30.24
CUBOID 6 614.36 20.00 1330.64 20.00 370.52 35.24
CUBOID 7 619.36 25.00 1335.64 25.00 375.52 40.24
CUBOID 8 624.36 30.00 1340.64 30.00 380.52 45.24
CUBOID 9 624.84 30.48 1341.12 30.48 381.00 45.72
ARRAY 4 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 2 3 2
MEDIA 3 3 4 3
MEDIA 3 4 5 4
MEDIA 3 5 6 5
MEDIA 3 6 7 6
MEDIA 3 7 8 7
MEDIA 3 8 9 8
BOUNDARY 9
The complete input for this room is given below: The plots for this problem must be quite large in order to see all the detail because the array is sparse and the shelves are thin. Therefore, the plots for this system are not included as Fig.s. The user can generate the plots if it is desirable to see them. The nuclide IDs used in this problem are for the 16group HansenRoach working format library, which is no longer distributed with SCALE.
KENO V.a:
=KENO5A
STORAGE ARRAY
READ PARAMETERS FDN=YES LIB=41
END PARAMETERS
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.48006e2 92800 2.6578e3 92400 4.827e4
92600 9.57e5 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 301 1 END MIXT
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
COM='METAL BUTTONS'
CYLINDER 1 1 5.08 2.54 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P22.86 2P30.48 45.72 0.0
CUBOID 2 1 2P22.86 2P30.48 45.72 0.635
UNIT 2
COM='SINGLE SHELF (1 X 10 X 1 ARRAY OF METAL BUTTONS ON A SHELF)'
ARRAY 1 3*0.0
UNIT 3
COM='SINGLE RACK (4 SHELVES TALL)'
ARRAY 2 3*0.0
UNIT 4
COM='CENTRAL AISLE UNIT SAME HEIGHT AS 4 SHELVES'
CUBOID 0 1 2P22.86 2P45.72 185.42 0.0
UNIT 5
COM='SET OF TWO RACKS END TO END SEPARATED BY THE CENTRAL AISLE'
ARRAY 3 3*0.0
UNIT 6
COM='AISLE BETWEEN ADJACENT SETS OF TWO RACKS & CENTRAL AISLE (UNITS 5)'
CUBOID 0 1 91.44 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
GLOBAL
UNIT 7
COM='STORAGE ARRAY IN THE ROOM WITH WALLS, FLOOR AND CEILING'
ARRAY 4 3*0.0
REFLECTOR 0 1 4*0.0 165.1 15.24 1
REFLECTOR 3 2 6*5.0 6
REFLECTOR 3 8 6*0.48 1
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 COM='SINGLE SHELF CONTAINING 10 METAL BUTTONS'
NUX=1 NUY=10 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
ARA=2 COM='SINGLE RACK OF 4 SHELVES'
NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=4 FILL F2 END FILL
ARA=3 COM='TWO RACKS END TO END WITH CENTRAL AISLE'
NUX=1 NUY=3 NUZ=1 FILL 3 4 3 END FILL
ARA=4 COM='ENTIRE STORAGE ARRAY'
NUX=9 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 5 6 3Q2 5 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=301 2 8 END BIAS
READ START NST=5 NBX=5 END START
READ PLOT TTL='XZ SLICE AT Y=30.48 WITH Z ACROSS AND X DOWN'
XUL=594.8 YUL=30.48 ZUL=1.0 XLR=0.5 YLR=30.48 ZLR=186.0
WAX=1.0 UDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='YZ SLICE OF LEFT RACKS, X=22.86 WITH Z ACROSS AND Y DOWN'
XUL=22.86 YUL=1311.0 ZUL=0.5 XLR=22.86 YLR=3.0 ZLR=186.0
WAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE OF ROOM THROUGH SHELF Z=0.3175 WITH X ACROSS AND Y DOWN'
XUL=1.0 YUL=1312.0 ZUL=0.3175 XLR=596.0 YLR=2.5 ZLR=0.3175
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=320 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
STORAGE ARRAY
READ PARAMETERS FDN=YES LIB=41 END PARAMETERS
READ MIXT SCT=1
MIX=1 92500 4.48006e2 92800 2.6578e3 92400 4.827e4 92600 9.57e5
MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 301 1
END MIXT
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.08 2.54 0.0
CUBOID 2 2P22.86 2P30.48 45.72 0.0
CUBOID 3 2P22.86 2P30.48 45.72 .635
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 2 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 45.72 0.0 609.60 0.0 46.355 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 22.86 30.48 0.635
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 45.72 0.0 609.60 0.0 185.42 0.0
ARRAY 2 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 4
CUBOID 1 2P22.86 2P45.72 185.42 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 5
CUBOID 1 45.72 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
ARRAY 3 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 6
CUBOID 1 91.44 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
GLOBAL UNIT 7
CUBOID 1 594.36 0.0 1310.64 0.0 185.42 0.0
CUBOID 2 594.36 0.0 1310.64 0.0 350.52 15.24
CUBOID 3 599.36 5.00 1315.64 5.00 355.52 20.24
CUBOID 4 604.36 10.00 1320.64 10.00 360.52 25.24
CUBOID 5 609.36 15.00 1325.64 15.00 365.52 30.24
CUBOID 6 614.36 20.00 1330.64 20.00 370.52 35.24
CUBOID 7 619.36 25.00 1335.64 25.00 375.52 40.24
CUBOID 8 624.36 30.00 1340.64 30.00 380.52 45.24
CUBOID 9 624.84 30.48 1341.12 30.48 381.00 45.72
ARRAY 4 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 2 3 2
MEDIA 3 3 4 3
MEDIA 3 4 5 4
MEDIA 3 5 6 5
MEDIA 3 6 7 6
MEDIA 3 7 8 7
MEDIA 3 8 9 8
BOUNDARY 9
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=10 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=4 FILL F2 END FILL
ARA=3 NUX=1 NUY=3 NUZ=1 FILL 3 4 3 END FILL
GBL=4 ARA=4 NUX=9 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 5 6 3Q2 5 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ BIAS ID=301 2 8 END BIAS
READ START NST=5 NBX=5 END START
READ PLOT PLT=YES TTL='XZ SLICE AT Y=30.48 WITH Z ACROSS AND X DOWN'
XUL=594.8 YUL=30.48 ZUL=1.0 XLR=0.5 YLR=30.48 ZLR=186.0
WAX=1.0 UDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='YZ SLICE OF LEFT RACKS, X=22.86 WITH Z ACROSS AND Y DOWN'
XUL=22.86 YUL=1311.0 ZUL=0.5 XLR=22.86 YLR=3.0 ZLR=186.0
WAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE OF ROOM THROUGH SHELF Z=0.3175 WITH X ACROSS AND Y DOWN'
XUL=1.0 YUL=1312.0 ZUL=0.3175 XLR=596.0 YLR=2.5 ZLR=0.3175
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=320 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
8.1.4.6.4. Arrays and holes
Sect. 8.1.4.6.1 and Sect. 8.1.4.6.2 describe the use of HOLE
s, and
Sect. 8.1.4.6.3 describes multiple ARRAY
s and ARRAY
s of
ARRAY
s. HOLE
s can be used to place ARRAY
s at locations
in other UNIT
s. This section contains examples to illustrate the
combined use of ARRAY
s and HOLE
s.
EXAMPLE 19. A SIMPLE CASK
This example consists of cylindrical mild steel container with an inside radius of 4.15 cm and a radial wall thickness of 0.45 cm. The thickness of the ends of the container is 1.27 cm, and the inside height is 10.1 cm. Highly enriched uranium rods 1 cm in diameter and 10 cm long are banded together into square bundles of four. These bundles are then positioned in the mild steel container as shown in Fig. 8.1.34. The rods sit on the floor of the container and have a 0.1 cm gap between their tops and the top of the container.
To generate the geometry description for this system, UNIT
1 is
defined as one uranium rod and its associated squarepitch closepacked
spacing region.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 0.5 2P5.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P0.5 2P5.0
KENOVI:
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.5 2P5.0
CUBOID 2 4P0.5 2P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
From here, the geometry description diverges between KENO V.a and KENOVI.
KENO V.a:
ARRAY
1 is defined to be the central square ARRAY
consisting of
four bundles of rods.
ARA=1 NUX=4 NUY=4 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
ARRAY
2 is defined to be a bundle of four rods.
ARA=2 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
ARRAY
2 is placed in UNIT
2. This defines the outer boundaries
of an imaginary CUBOID
that contains the ARRAY
. It is convenient
to have the origin of the ARRAY
at its center, so the most negative
point of the array will be (1, 1,5).
UNIT 2
ARRAY 2 1.0 1.0 5.0
An ARRAY
record is used to place ARRAY
1 in the GLOBAL UNIT
.
Then the cylindrical container is described around it and HOLE
s
are used to place the four outer bundles around the central ARRAY
.
GLOBAL UNIT 3
ARRAY 1 2.0 2.0 5.0
CYLINDER 0 1 4.15 5.1 5.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.0 0.0
HOLE 2 3.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.0 0.0
HOLE 2 3.0 0.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 4.6 6.37 6.27
The first HOLE
places the bottom bundle of four rods, the second
HOLE
places the bundle of four rods at the right, the third HOLE
places the top bundle of rods and the fourth HOLE
places the left
bundle of rods.
KENOVI:
Define UNIT
2 to be a void CUBOID
with the same square pitch as
the rod square pitch.
UNIT
2
CUBOID
1 4P0.5 2P5.0
MEDIA
0 1 1
BOUNDARY
1
ARRAY
1 is defined to be the central square 10 \(\times\) 10 ARRAY
consisting of 32 rods and 68 void positions that can be used to
represent the array shown in Fig. 8.1.34.
ARA=1 NUX=10 NUY=10 NUZ=1
FILL 14*2 1 1 8*2 1 1 7*2 4*1 4*2 8*1 2 2 8*1 4*2 4*1 7*2 1 1 8*2 1 1 14*2
END FILL
ARRAY
1 is placed in UNIT
3. The first CYLINDER
card defines
the ARRAY
BOUNDARY
. Everything external to this boundary is not
considered part of the problem. The positions in the ARRAY
that do
not contain rods are filled with cuboids consisting of void. The
ARRAY
boundary must either coincide with the outer boundary of the
ARRAY
or be contained within the ARRAY
. An exterior void region
is placed around the array boundary to coincide with the size of the
interior radius of the container. The 10 \(\times\) 10 ARRAY
with the
ARRAY
boundary is shown in Fig. 8.1.35.
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 4.15 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 2 4.15 5.1 5.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 5 5 1 0.5 0.5 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
The UNIT
containing the ARRAY
is now placed within the global
unit using a HOLE
content record. The location of the HOLE
is
determined using ORIGIN
data to match the origin of the UNIT
in
the HOLE
with an X, Y, Z position in the surrounding UNIT
. In
this problem, the origin of the UNIT
must be at position (0,0,0).
Since only nonzero data must be entered, ORIGIN
data are not needed
for this problem. The boundary region consists of the steel container.
GLOBAL UNIT 4
CYLINDER 2 4.6 6.37 6.27
HOLE 3 ORIGIN X=0.0 Y=0.0 Z=0.0
MEDIA 2 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
The overall problem description is shown below. Two of the color plots used for verification of this mockup are shown in Fig. 8.1.36 and Fig. 8.1.37. The black outside border of the two color plots indicates volume outside the global unit. The plot can be extended just outside the global unit boundary to ensure that the entire problem is included in the plot. This results in a black area surrounding the actual problem.
KENO V.a:
=KENOVA
CASK ARRAY
READ PARAMETERS FDN=YES LIB=41 GEN=10
END PARAMETERS
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.48006e2 92800 2.6578e3 92400 4.827e4
92600 9.57e5 MIX=2 100 1.0 END MIXT
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 0.5 2P5.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P0.5 2P5.0
UNIT 2
ARRAY 2 1.0 1.0 5.0
GLOBAL UNIT 3
ARRAY 1 2.0 2.0 5.0
CYLINDER 0 1 4.15 5.1 5.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.0 0.0
HOLE 2 3.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.0 0.0
HOLE 2 3.0 0.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 4.6 6.37 6.27
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=4 NUY=4 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=1 FILL F1 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ PLOT TTL='XZ SLICE AT Y=0.25 WITH X ACROSS AND Z DOWN'
XUL=5.0 YUL=0.25 ZUL=6.5 XLR=5.0 YLR=0.25 ZLR=6.5
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z=0.0 WITH X ACROSS AND Y DOWN'
XUL=5.0 YUL=5.0 ZUL=0.0 XLR=5.0 YLR=5.0 ZLR=0.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
KENO VI
CASK ARRAY
READ PARAMETERS TME=1.0 FDN=YES LIB=41 GEN=10 END PARAMETERS
READ MIXT SCT=1
MIX=1 92500 4.48006e2 92800 2.6578e3 92400 4.827e4 92600 9.57e5
MIX=2 100 1.0 END MIXT
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.5 2P5.0
CUBOID 2 4P0.5 2P5.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 4P0.5 2P5.0
MEDIA 0 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 4.15 5.0 5.0
CYLINDER 2 4.15 5.1 5.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 5 5 1 0.5 0.5 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 4
CYLINDER 2 4.6 6.37 6.27
HOLE 3 ORIGIN X=0.0 Y=0.0 Z=0.0
MEDIA 2 1 2
BOUNDARY 2
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=10 NUY=10 NUZ=1 FILL 14*2 1 1 8*2 1 1 7*2 4*1 4*2 8*1 2 2 8*1 4*2 4*1 7*2 1 1
8*2 1 1 14*2 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ PLOT TTL='XZ SLICE AT Y=0.25 WITH X ACROSS AND Z DOWN'
XUL=5.0 YUL=0.25 ZUL=6.5 XLR=5.0 YLR=0.25 ZLR=6.5
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z=0.0 WITH X ACROSS AND Y DOWN'
XUL=5.0 YUL=5.0 ZUL=0.0 XLR=5.0 YLR=5.0 ZLR=0.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
EXAMPLE 20. A TYPICAL PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) SHIPPING CASK
A typical PWR shipping cask is illustrated in Fig. 8.1.38. The interior
and exterior shell of the cask is carbon steel (mixture 7), and a
depleted uranium gamma shield (mixture 6) is present in the annulus
between the steel layers. The shipping cask contains seven PWR fuel
assemblies. Each assembly is a 17 \(\times\) 17 ARRAY
of fuel rods with water
holes. Each assembly is contained in a stainless steel (mixture 5) box.
Each fuel rod is composed of 4% enriched UO_{2} (mixture 1) clad
with Zircaloy (mixture 2). Rods of B_{4}C clad (mixture 4) with
stainless steel are positioned between the fuel assemblies. The entire
cask is filled with water (mixture 3).
To describe the geometry of the cask, some simple units are defined as
shown in Fig. 8.1.39. UNIT
1 represents a fuel rod and its
associated square pitch spacing region. UNIT
2 represents a water
hole in a fuel assembly. UNIT
s 3, 4, and 6 represent the
B_{4}C rods with their various spacings, and UNIT
5 is a
water hole that is used in association with some of the B_{4}C
rods.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 .41148 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 .48133 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
UNIT 2
CUBOID 3 1 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 4 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 5 1 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 .9912 .9912 2.2352 1.27 365.76 0.0
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 4 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 5 1 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 .9912 .9912 1.2702 2.235 365.76 0.0
UNIT 5
CUBOID 3 1 .9912 .9912 1.7526 1.7526 365.76 0.0
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 4 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 5 1 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 1.1875215 1.1875215 1.883706 1.883706 365.76 0.0
KENOVI:
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 .41148 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .48133 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 3 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 .9912 .9912 2.2352 1.27 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 4 1 1
MEDIA 5 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 .9912 .9912 1.2702 2.235 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 4 1 1
MEDIA 5 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 5
CUBOID 1 .9912 .9912 1.7526 1.7526 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 3 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1.1875215 1.1875215 1.883706 1.883706 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 4 1 1
MEDIA 5 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT
s 1 and 2 are stacked together into ARRAY
1 to form the
ARRAY
of fuel pins and water holes in a fuel assembly as shown in
Fig. 8.1.40. This ARRAY
is then encompassed with a layer of water
and a layer of stainless steel to complete a fuel assembly in a storage
cell (UNIT
7) as shown in Fig. 8.1.41.
KENO V.a:
ARA=1 NUX=17 NUY=17 NUZ=1 FILL
39R1 2 2Q3 8R1 2 9R1 2 22R1 2 4Q3 38R1 2 4Q3
Q51 22R1 2 Q10 Q9 2Q3 39R1 END FILL
UNIT 7
ARRAY 1 10.83818 10.83818 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 8 1 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
KENOVI:
ARA=1 NUX=17 NUY=17 NUZ=1 FILL
39R1 2 2Q3 8R1 2 9R1 2 22R1 2 4Q3 38R1 2 4Q3
Q51 22R1 2 Q10 Q9 2Q3 39R1 END FILL
UNIT 7
CUBOID 1 10.83818 10.83818 10.83818 10.83818 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 2 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 9 9 1 3*0.0
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 5 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
An array of UNIT
6s is created to represent the array of
B_{4}C rods that is positioned between the fuel assemblies. In
KENO V.a, the array of B_{4}C rods shown in Fig. 8.1.42 is
contained in UNIT
8 for further use. KENOVI geometry description
does not need the placement of ARRAY
2 in a separate UNIT
.
KENO V.a:
ARA=2 NUX=2 NUY=6 NUZ=1 FILL F6 END FILL
UNIT 8
ARRAY 2 0 0 0
KENOVI:
ARA=2 NUX=2 NUY=6 NUZ=1 FILL F6 END FILL
The next step is to create the central array of three fuel assemblies
with B_{4}C rods between them. In KENO V.a, this is done by
stacking fuel assemblies in storage cells (UNIT
7) and
B_{4}C rod arrays (UNIT
8) into an array (ARRAY
3) and
placing it in a UNIT
(UNIT
9). In KENOVI description, UNIT
7 (fuel assembly in storage cell) and the array of B_{4}C rods
(ARRAY
2) are directly placed into a UNIT
(UNIT
8). The
resultant geometry is shown in Fig. 8.1.43.
KENO V.a:
ARA=3 NUX=5 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 8 7 8 7 END FILL
UNIT 9 ARRAY 3 0 0 0
KENOVI:
UNIT 8
CUBOID 4 11.302238 16.052324 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 5 16.052324 11.302238 11.302236 11.302236 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 6 38.052324 38.052324 11.302236 11.302236 365.76 0.0
HOLE 7
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X= 27.354562
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X= 27.354562
ARRAY 2 4 PLACE 1 1 1 14.8648025 9.418530 0.0
ARRAY 2 5 PLACE 1 1 1 12.4897595 9.418530 0.0
MEDIA 3 1 6 5 4
BOUNDARY 6
UNIT
s 3, 4, and 5 are used to define the arrays of B_{4}C
rods that fit above and below the central array, as shown in
Fig. 8.1.44.
ARA=4 NUX=39 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 3 5 2Q2 3 4 2Q2 5 4 3 2Q2 5 3 4 2Q2 5 4 3 2Q2 5 2Q2 3
END FILL
ARA=5 NUX=39 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 4 5 2Q2 4 3 2Q2 5 3 4 2Q2 5 4 3 2Q2 5 3 4 2Q2 5 2Q2 4
END FILL
In KENO V.a these ARRAY
s are placed in UNIT
s (UNIT
s 10
and 11) for further use.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 10 ARRAY 4 0 0 0
UNIT 11 ARRAY 5 0 0 0
UNIT
s 9, 10, and 11 in the KENO V.a description, or UNIT
8 and
ARRAY
s 3 and 4 in the KENOVI description, are stacked to form the
central array with B_{4}C rods as shown in Fig. 8.1.45.
KENO V.a:
ARA=6 NUX=1 NUY=3 NUZ=1 FILL 11 9 10 END FILL
KENOVI:
CUBOID 2 38.052324 38.052324 14.807436 11.302236 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 38.052324 38.052324 11.302236 14.807436 365.76 0.0
HOLE 8
ARRAY 3 2 PLACE 20 1 1 0.0 13.054836 0.0
ARRAY 4 3 PLACE 20 1 1 0.0 13.054836 0.0
This completes the three central fuel assemblies and all the
B_{4}C rods associated with them. Next, UNIT
s 7 and 8 in
KENO V.a geometry, UNIT
7 and ARRAY
2 in the KENOVI geometry,
are stacked together to form the array of two fuel assemblies separated
by B_{4}C rods as shown in Fig. 8.1.46. This is designated as
ARRAY
7 and UNIT
12 in KENO V.a, and UNIT
9 in KENOVI. The
origin of UNIT
12 for KENO V.a is specified at the center of the
array in the X and Y directions and the bottom of the fuel assemblies
(Z=27.94 cm). The origin of UNIT
9 in the KENOVI description is
specified at the center of the B_{4}C array in the X and
Y directions and the bottom of the array in the Z direction.
KENO V.a:
ARA=7 NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 8 7 END FILL
UNIT 12 ARRAY 7 24.979519 11.302238 27.94
KENOVI:
UNIT 9
CUBOID 1 2.375043 2.375043 11.302236 11.302236 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 4 24.979519 23.7919975 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
ARRAY 2 1 PLACE 1 1 1 1.1875215 9.418530 0.0
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X=13.67728
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X=13.67728
MEDIA 0 1 4 1
BOUNDARY 4
In KENO V.a, UNIT
13 is simply a cylindrical lid that fits on top of
the shipping cask. It is described relative to the origin of the
shipping cask and is made of depleted uranium.
KENO V.a:
UNIT 13
CYLINDER 6 1 47.625 457.2 449.58
All necessary subassemblies that make up the shipping cask have been
built. The shipping cask is completed by specifying the origin of the
central section (ARRAY
6 in KENO V.a) (see Fig. 8.1.45) to be at the
center of the array in X and Y and the bottom of the array in the Z
direction. A cylinder of water defining the interior of the shipping
cask is described around the array. In the KENO V.a geometry, a HOLE
is used to place UNIT
12 (Fig. 8.1.46) below the array, and a second
HOLE is used to place another UNIT
12 above the array. In the
KENOVI geometry, UNIT
9 is placed as a HOLE
above and below the
central array. Then a cylinder of steel is placed around the water,
which is in turn encased by depleted uranium. The depleted uranium is
then contained in the outer steel cylinder of the shipping cask. In KENO
V.a description, a third HOLE
is used to place the depleted uranium
lid (UNIT
13) on the shipping cask. This completes the shipping cask
description of Fig. 8.1.38
The geometry data for this shipping cask are shown below. The plot data have been included for verification of the geometry description. However, the plot generated by this data is quite large and is therefore not included in this document.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 .41148 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 .48133 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
UNIT 2
CUBOID 3 1 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 4 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 5 1 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 .9912 .9912 2.2352 1.27 365.76 0.0
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 4 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 5 1 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 .9912 .9912 1.2702 2.235 365.76 0.0
UNIT 5
CUBOID 3 1 .9912 .9912 1.7526 1.7526 365.76 0.0
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 4 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 5 1 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 1.1875215 1.1875215 1.883706 1.883706 365.76 0.0
UNIT 7 ARRAY 1 10.83818 10.83818 0.0
CUBOID 3 1 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 8 1 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
UNIT 8 ARRAY 2 0 0 0
UNIT 9 ARRAY 3 0 0 0
UNIT 10 ARRAY 4 0 0 0
UNIT 11 ARRAY 5 0 0 0
UNIT 12 ARRAY 7 24.979519 11.302238 27.94
UNIT 13
CYLINDER 6 1 47.625 457.2 449.58
ARRAY 6 38.6568 14.807438 27.94
CYLINDER 3 1 47.625 447.04 16.51
HOLE 12 0.0 26.1097 0.0
HOLE 12 0.0 26.1097 0.0
CYLINDER 7 1 48.895 447.04 13.335
CYLINDER 6 1 59.06 447.04 3.81
CYLINDER 7 1 63.01 462.28 0.0
HOLE 13 0.0 0.0 0.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=17 NUY=17 NUZ=1 FILL
39R1 2 2Q3 8R1 2 9R1 2 22R1 2 4Q3 38R1 2 4Q3
Q51 22R1 2 Q10 Q9 2Q3 39R1 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=2 NUY=6 NUZ=1 FILL F6 END FILL
ARA=3 NUX=5 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 8 7 8 7 END FILL
ARA=4 NUX=39 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 3 5 2Q2 3 4 2Q2 5 4 3 2Q2 5 3 4 2Q2
5 4 3 2Q2 5 2Q2 3 END FILL
ARA=5 NUX=39 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 4 5 2Q2 4 3 2Q2 5 3 4 2Q2 5 4 3 2Q2
5 3 4 2Q2 5 2Q2 4 END FILL
ARA=6 NUX=1 NUY=3 NUZ=1 FILL 11 9 10 END FILL
ARA=7 NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 8 7 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL=? SHIPPING CASK IF300 XY SLICE ?
XUL=63 YUL=63 ZUL=180 XLR=63 YLR=63 ZLR=180
UAX=1 VDN=1 NAX=350
PLT=NO
END PLOT
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 .41148 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .48133 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 .63754 .63754 .63754 .63754 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 3 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 .9912 .9912 2.2352 1.27 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 4 1 1
MEDIA 5 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 .9912 .9912 1.2702 2.235 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 4 1 1
MEDIA 5 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 5
CUBOID 1 .9912 .9912 1.7526 1.7526 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 3 1 1
BOUNDARY 1
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 1 .584 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 2 .635 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 1.1875215 1.1875215 1.883706 1.883706 365.76 0.0
MEDIA 4 1 1
MEDIA 5 1 2 1
MEDIA 3 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 7
CUBOID 1 10.83818 10.83818 10.83818 10.83818 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 2 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 11.112495 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 9 9 1 3*0.0
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 8 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 8
CUBOID 4 11.302238 16.052324 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 5 16.052324 11.302238 11.302236 11.302236 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 6 38.052324 38.052324 11.302236 11.302236 365.76 0.0
HOLE 7
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X= 27.354562
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X= 27.354562
ARRAY 2 4 PLACE 1 1 1 14.8648025 9.418530 0.0
ARRAY 2 5 PLACE 1 1 1 12.4897595 9.418530 0.0
MEDIA 0 1 6 5 4
BOUNDARY 6
UNIT 10
CUBOID 1 1.1875215 1.1875215 11.302236 11.302236 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 4 23.7919975 23.7919975 11.302238 11.302238 365.76 0.0
ARRAY 2 1 PLACE 1 1 1 3*0.0
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X=12.4897595
HOLE 7 ORIGIN X=12.4897595
MEDIA 0 1 4 1
BOUNDARY 4
GLOBAL UNIT 11
CUBOID 2 38.052324 38.052324 13.284638 11.302236 365.76 0.0
CUBOID 3 38.052324 38.052324 11.302236 13.284638 365.76 0.0
CYLINDER 6 47.625 419.10 11.43
CYLINDER 7 48.895 419.10 14.605
CYLINDER 8 59.06 419.10 24.13
CYLINDER 9 47.625 429.26 421.64
CYLINDER 10 63.01 434.34 27.94
HOLE 8
ARRAY 3 2 PLACE 20 1 1 0.0 12.293438 0.0
ARRAY 4 3 PLACE 20 1 1 0.0 12.293438 0.0
HOLE 9 ORIGIN Y=24.586876
HOLE 9 ORIGIN Y=24.586876
MEDIA 3 1 6 3 2
MEDIA 7 1 7 6 3 2
MEDIA 6 1 8 7
MEDIA 7 1 9
MEDIA 6 1 10 9 8
BOUNDARY 10
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=17 NUY=17 NUZ=1 FILL
39R1 2 2Q3 8R1 2 9R1 2 22R1 2 4Q3 38R1 2 4Q3
Q51 22R1 2 Q10 Q9 2Q3 39R1 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=2 NUY=6 NUZ=1 FILL F6 END FILL
ARA=3 NUX=5 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 8 7 8 7 END FILL
ARA=4 NUX=39 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 3 5 2Q2 3 4 2Q2 5 4 3 2Q2 5 3 4 2Q2
5 4 3 2Q2 5 2Q2 3 END FILL
ARA=5 NUX=39 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 4 5 2Q2 4 3 2Q2 5 3 4 2Q2 5 4 3 2Q2
5 3 4 2Q2 5 2Q2 4 END FILL
ARA=6 NUX=1 NUY=3 NUZ=1 FILL 11 9 10 END FILL
ARA=7 NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 8 7 END FILL
END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL=? SHIPPING CASK IF300 XY SLICE ?
XUL=63 YUL=63 ZUL=180 XLR=63 YLR=63 ZLR=180
UAX=1 VDN=1 NAX=350
PLT=NO
END PLOT
8.1.4.6.5. Triangular pitched arrays in KENOVI
EXAMPLE 21.
Triangular pitched ARRAY
s can be described in KENOVI
by defining the UNIT
s that make up the ARRAY
as HEXPRISM
and in the array data block setting TYP
=TRIANGULAR, HEXAGONAL,
SHEXAGONAL, or RHEXAGONAL. This includes closepacked triangular pitched
arrays. Since the ARRAY
s are constructed by stacking hexprisms,
care must be taken to ensure that the ARRAY
boundary is completely
enclosed within the stacked UNIT
. Below is an example of a
triangular pitched ARRAY
.
The first and second UNIT
s are the HEXPRISM
s that make up
the ARRAY
. UNIT
1 is the fuel cell stacked in a triangular
pitched or hexagonal lattice. UNIT
2 is a dummy UNIT
used to
fill in the ARRAY
so the array boundary is contained within the
stacked UNIT
s. Since the ARRAY
is not moderated, UNIT
2
contains void. Fig. 8.1.47 shows an XY cross section schematic of
UNIT
s 1 and 2.
UNIT 1
COM='SINGLE CELL FUEL CAN IN HEXPRISM'
CYLINDER 10 10.16 18.288 0.0
CYLINDER 20 10.312 18.288 0.152
HEXPRISM 30 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 20 10
MEDIA 0 1 30 20
BOUNDARY 30
UNIT 2
COM='EMPTY CELL'
HEXPRISM 10 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 0 1 10
BOUNDARY 10
UNIT
3 is the GLOBAL UNIT
that contains the ARRAY
and
ARRAY BOUNDARY
. The ARRAY
is an unmoderated triangular
pitched assembly of 7 cells. Unrotated triangular or hexagonal pitched
arrays can be set up in two array configurations. The first
configuration, selected using the TYP=
followed by keyword
HEXAGONAL
or TRIANGULAR
, stacks the UNIT
s so that the
faces perpendicular to the X axis meet. Each consecutive row in the Y
direction begins \(1/2\) of the facetoface dimension farther over in the
positive X direction than in the previous row. The second configuration,
selected using the TYP=
followed by keyword SHEXAGONAL
, also
stacks the UNIT
s so that the faces perpendicular to the X axis
meet. However, for this type of ARRAY
, the odd numbered rows in the
Y direction (1, 3, 5, etc.) begin at the left edge of the ARRAY
, and
the even numbered rows in the Y direction (2, 4, 6, etc.) begin \(1/2\) of the
facetoface dimension to the right of the left edge of the ARRAY
.
Fig. 8.1.48 and Fig. 8.1.49 show XY cross section schematics of the
assembly for the two different unrotated hexagonal ARRAY
types.
GLOBAL UNIT 3
COM='7 CYLINDERS IN A CIRCLE WITH CYLINDRICAL BOUNDARY'
CYLINDER 10 32.000 18.288 0.152
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 3 3 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 10
READ ARRAY GBL=1 ARA=1 TYP=HEXAGONAL NUX=5 NUY=5 NUZ=1
FILL 7*2 2*1 2*2 3*1 2*2 2*1 7*2 END FILL END ARRAY
The overall problem description is shown below. The cross section library would be generated in a separate CSASMG step. An XY cross section color plot used for verification of this mockup is shown in Fig. 8.1.50.
Data description of Example 21.
=KENOVI
TRIANGULAR PITCHED ARRAY 7 PINS IN A CIRCLE
READ PARAMETERS LNG=20000 LIB=4 END PARAMETERS
READ MIXT SCT=2
MIX=1 NCM=8 92235 1.37751E03 92238 9.92354E05 8016 3.32049E02
9019 2.95349E03 1001 6.05028E02
MIX=2 NCM=14 13027 6.02374E02
END MIXT
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
COM='SINGLE CELL FUEL CAN IN HEXPRISM'
CYLINDER 10 10.16 18.288 0.0
CYLINDER 20 10.312 18.288 0.152
HEXPRISM 30 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 20 10
MEDIA 0 1 30 20
BOUNDARY 30
UNIT 2
COM='EMPTY CELL'
HEXPRISM 10 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 0 1 10
BOUNDARY 10
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CYLINDER 10 32.000 18.288 0.152
COM='7 CYLINDERS IN A CIRCLE WITH CYLINDRICAL BOUNDARY'
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 3 3 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 10
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY GBL=1 TYP=HEXAGONAL NUX=5 NUY=5 NUZ=1
FILL 7*2 2*1 2*2 3*1 2*2 2*1 7*2 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='TRIANGULAR PITCHED ARRAY, 7 PINS IN A CIRCLE'
XUL=33.0 YUL=33.0 ZUL=0.0
XLR=33.0 YLR=33.0 ZLR=0.0
UAX=1 VDN=1 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
EXAMPLE 21a.
Another hexagonal ARRAY
type involves stacking rotated hexprisms,
which are hexprisms rotated 30\(^{\circ}\)/ 90\(^{\circ}\) so that the flat faces
perpendicular to the Y axis now meet. Rotated hexagonal arrays are
specified by setting TYP=RHEXAGONAL
in the array data block.
Because the ARRAY
s are constructed by stacking hexprisms, care
must be taken to ensure the array boundary is completely enclosed within
the stacked UNIT
. Below is an example of a rotated hexagonal pitched
ARRAY
.
The first and second UNIT
s are the rotated hexprisms that make up
the ARRAY
. They are specified using the geometry keyword
RHEXPRISM
. UNIT
1 is the fuel cell that is stacked in a rotated
hexagonal lattice. UNIT
2 is a dummy UNIT
used to fill in the
ARRAY
so that the ARRAY BOUNDARY
is contained within the stacked
UNIT
s. Since the ARRAY
is not moderated, UNIT
2 contains
void. Fig. 8.1.51 shows an XY cross section schematic of UNIT
s 1
and 2.
UNIT 1
COM='SINGLE CELL FUEL CAN IN HEXPRISM'
CYLINDER 10 10.16 18.288 0.0
CYLINDER 20 10.312 18.288 0.152
RHEXPRISM 30 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 20 10
MEDIA 0 1 30 20
BOUNDARY 30
UNIT 2
COM='EMPTY CELL'
RHEXPRISM 10 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 0 1 10
BOUNDARY 10
UNIT
3 is the GLOBAL UNIT
that contains the ARRAY
and
ARRAY BOUNDARY
. The ARRAY
is an unmoderated rotated hexagonal
pitched assembly of 7 cells. The rotated hexagonal array type is
specified in the array data block using TYP=
with the keyword
RHEXAGONAL
. This ARRAY
type stacks the UNIT
s so the faces
perpendicular to the Y axis meet. In the odd numbered columns (i.e., 1,
3, 5, etc.), the UNIT
s are stacked so the columns begin at the
lower edge of the array and in the even numbered columns (i.e., 2, 4, 6,
etc.), the UNIT
s are stacked so the columns begin \(1/2\) of the
facetoface dimension above the lower edge of the ARRAY
.
Fig. 8.1.52 shows the XY cross section schematic of the assembly for
the rotated hexagonal ARRAY
type.
GLOBAL UNIT 3
COM='7 CYLINDERS IN A CIRCLE WITH CYLINDRICAL BOUNDARY'
CYLINDER 10 32.000 18.288 0.152
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 3 3 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 10
READ ARRAY GBL=1 ARA=1 TYP=RHEXAGONAL NUX=5 NUY=5 NUZ=1
FILL 6*2 3*1 2*2 3*1 3*2 1*1 7*2 END FILL END ARRAY
The overall problem description is shown below. The cross section library would be generated in a separate CSASMG step. An XY cross section color plot used for verification of this mockup is shown in Fig. 8.1.53.
Data description of Example 21a.
=KENOVI
TRIANGULAR PITCHED ARRAY 7 PINS IN A CIRCLE
READ PARAMETERS LNG=20000 LIB=4 END PARAMETERS
READ MIXT SCT=2
MIX=1 NCM=8 92235 1.37751E03 92238 9.92354E05 8016 3.32049E02
9019 2.95349E03 1001 6.05028E02
MIX=2 NCM=14 13027 6.02374E02
END MIXT
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
COM='SINGLE CELL FUEL CAN IN HEXPRISM'
CYLINDER 10 10.16 18.288 0.0
CYLINDER 20 10.312 18.288 0.152
RHEXPRISM 30 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 20 10
MEDIA 0 1 30 20
BOUNDARY 30
UNIT 2
COM='EMPTY CELL'
RHEXPRISM 10 10.503 18.288 0.152
MEDIA 0 1 10
BOUNDARY 10
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CYLINDER 10 32.000 18.288 0.152
COM='7 CYLINDERS IN A CIRCLE WITH CYLINDRICAL BOUNDARY'
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 3 3 1 3*0.0
BOUNDARY 10
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY GBL=1 TYP=RHEXAGONAL NUX=5 NUY=5 NUZ=1
FILL 6*2 3*1 2*2 3*1 3*2 1*1 7*2 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='ROTATED HEXAGONAL ARRAY, 7 PINS IN A CIRCLE'
XUL=33.0 YUL=33.0 ZUL=0.0
XLR=33.0 YLR=33.0 ZLR=0.0
UAX=1 VDN==1 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
8.1.4.6.6. Triangular pitched Arrays in KENO V.a
Triangular pitched arrays can be described in KENO V.a geometry by properly defining the basic unit from which the array can be built. This includes closepacked triangular pitched arrays. Two geometry configurations are described below.
EXAMPLE 1. Bare Triangular pitched Array.
Fig. 8.1.54 illustrates a small closepacked triangular pitched
ARRAY
. Each rod in the ARRAY
has a radius of 2.0 cm, and the
pitch of the ARRAY
is 4 cm. To create this ARRAY
, describe five
units as defined in Fig. 8.1.55.
Assume the rods described in the ARRAY
are each 2.0 cm in radius and
100 cm tall. The rods are composed of mixture 1. The geometry
descriptions for the first four UNIT
s are given below.
UNIT 1
ZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 2
ZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 3
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 4
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
To describe UNIT
5, the origin of the UNIT
is defined to be at
its center. One of the hemicylinders is built into the box, and the
other three are added as holes. In this example, the +X hemicylinder is
built into the box, and the other hemicylinders are inserted as holes.
(Because the +X hemicylinder is built into UNIT
5, UNIT
4 is not
used in the problem.) The half dimension of the box in the X dimension
is equal to the radius, 2.0 cm. The half dimension of the box in the
Y direction is \(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}\) times the pitch (0.866025 * 4.0) or 3.46411 cm.
UNIT
5 is described below.
UNIT 5
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0 ORIGIN 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P2.0 2P3.46411 2P50.0
HOLE 1 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 2.0 0.0
In the description of UNIT
5, the ZHEMICYL+X
places the
hemicylinder at the left of the box. HOLE
1 places the top
hemicylinder, HOLE
2 places the bottom hemicylinder, and HOLE
3
places the hemicylinder at the right of the box.
Next, a UNIT
6 is defined that can be used to complete the lower rod
of UNIT
5. A UNIT
7 is defined that can be used to complete the
upper rod of UNIT
5. UNIT
8 is defined to complete the left rod
of UNIT
5, and UNIT
9 is defined to complete the right rod of
UNIT
5. UNIT
10 is defined to complete the corners of the
overall ARRAY
. The input data for these UNIT
s are given below
and are illustrated in Fig. 8.1.56.
UNIT 6
ZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P2.0 0.0 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 7
ZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P2.0 2.0 0.0 2P50.0
UNIT 8
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 0.0 2.0 2P3.46411 2P50.0
UNIT 9
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2.0 0.0 2P3.46411 2P50.0
UNIT 10
CUBOID 0 1 2.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 2P50.0
Fig. 8.1.57 shows the arrangement of the UNIT
s to complete the
ARRAY
. The data to describe the ARRAY
are shown below.
ARA=1 NUX=6 NUY=4 NUZ=1
FILL 10 4R6 10 8 4R5 9 1Q6 10 4R7 10 END FILL
The bottom row of the ARRAY
is described by the data entries
10 4R6 10. The second row of the ARRAY
is described by the data
entries 8 4R5 9. The third row is filled by repeating the previous six
entries (1Q6). It could also have been described by entering 8 4R5 9.
The top row of the ARRAY
is described by the data entries 10 4R7 10.
EXAMPLE 2a. Triangular Pitched ARRAY in a Cylinder
Fig. 8.1.58 illustrates a closepacked triangular pitched ARRAY in a cylinder. This array may be described by defining five basic units that are the same as those of Example 1 shown in Fig. 8.1.55.
UNIT 1
ZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 2
ZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 3
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 4
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
To describe UNIT
5, the origin of the UNIT
to be at its center
is defined. One of the hemicylinders is built into the box, and the
other three are added as HOLE
s. In this example, the
+X hemicylinder is built into the box, and the other hemicylinders are
inserted as HOLE
s. The half dimension of the box in the
X dimension is equal to the radius, 2.0 cm. The half dimension of the
box in the Y direction is \(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}\) times the pitch (0.866025 * 4.0) or
3.46411 cm. UNIT
5 is described below.
UNIT 5
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0 ORIGIN 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P2.0 2P3.46411 2P50.0
HOLE 1 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 2.0 0.0 0.0
In the description of UNIT
5, the ZHEMICYL+X
places the
hemicylinder at the left of the box. HOLE
1 places the top
hemicylinder, HOLE
2 places the bottom hemicylinder, and HOLE
3
places the hemicylinder at the right of the box.
To describe the base ARRAY
of the problem, UNIT
s 5 is stacked
in a 4 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 1 array as shown in Fig. 8.1.59. The input data for the
ARRAY
are the following:
ARA=1 NUX=4 NUY=2 NUZ=1 FILL F5 END FILL
Next, the ARRAY
is placed within the cylinder. This is done by
placing the ARRAY
in a UNIT
, defined here to be UNIT
6. The
origin of the cylinder has been defined to be at the center of the
ARRAY
. The resulting geometry is shown in Fig. 8.1.60.
UNIT 6
ARRAY 1 8.0 6.92822 50.0
CYLINDER 0 1 12.4 2P50.0
CYLINDER 2 1 12.65 2P50.0
Next, the hemicylinders necessary to complete all of the half cylinders
remaining in Fig. 8.1.60 are added. This is done by placing four
UNIT
s 1 at the appropriate positions along the bottom of the
ARRAY
, four UNIT
s 2 at the top of the ARRAY
, two
UNIT
s 3 at the left of the ARRAY
, and two UNIT
s 4 at the
right of the ARRAY
. The input data are shown below, and the
resulting configuration is shown in Fig. 8.1.61. In UNIT
6, the
first HOLE
1 places a UNIT
1 under the lower left UNIT
of
the ARRAY
. The second HOLE
1 places a UNIT
1 under the next
ARRAY UNIT
to the right of the first one. This procedure is
repeated for the next two lower ARRAY UNIT
s, thus completing
the lower row of cylinders. Similarly, the first HOLE
2 places a
UNIT
2 above the upper left UNIT
of the ARRAY
. The second
HOLE
2 places a UNIT
1 to the right of the first one, etc.,
until the four cylinders at the top of the ARRAY
are completed. The
first HOLE
3 places a UNIT
3 at the lower left side of the
ARRAY
to complete that rod. The second HOLE
3 completes the rod
above it. The first HOLE
4 completes the lower rod on the right side
of the ARRAY
. The second HOLE
4 completes the rod above it. The
geometry data listed below result in the configuration shown in
Fig. 8.1.61.
UNIT 6
ARRAY 1 8.0 6.92822 50.0
CYLINDER 0 1 12.4 2P50.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 3 8.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 8.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 4 8.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 4 8.0 3.46411 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 12.65 2P50.0
To complete the desired configuration, a cylinder is defined, UNIT
7, and it is placed at the four appropriate positions as shown below.
The first HOLE
7 places the cylinder of UNIT
7 at the left of
the ARRAY
, the second HOLE
7 places the cylinder at the top of
the ARRAY
, the third HOLE
7 places the cylinder at the right of
the ARRAY
, and the fourth HOLE
7 places the cylinder at the
bottom of the ARRAY
. The completed configuration is shown in
Fig. 8.1.62. It is not necessary for UNIT
7 to precede UNIT
6.
It is allowable to place UNIT
7 after UNIT
6 in the input data.
Because the final configuration is defined in UNIT
6, it must be
designated as the GLOBAL UNIT
. The total geometry input for this
example is listed below.
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
ZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 2
ZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 3
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 4
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 5
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0 ORIGIN 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P2.0 2P3.46411 2P50.0
HOLE 1 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 2.0 0.0 0.0
UNIT 7
CYLINDER 1 1 2.0 2P50.0
GLOBAL UNIT 6
ARRAY 1 8.0 6.92822 50.0
CYLINDER 0 1 12.4 2P50.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 2.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 3 8.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 8.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 4 8.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 4 8.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 7 10.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 7 10.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 10.39233 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 12.65 2P50.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=4 NUY=2 NUZ=1 FILL F5 END FILL
END ARRAY
EXAMPLE 2b. Alternative Mockup of Triangular Pitched ARRAY in a Cylinder.
Consider the triangular pitched ARRAY
shown in Fig. 8.1.58. Another
method of describing this configuration is given below. Four basic
UNIT
s are defined, as listed below. These are the same UNIT
s
shown in Fig. 8.1.55.
UNIT 1
ZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 2
ZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 3
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 4
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT
5 is the same as previously defined in Example 2a, and pictured
in Fig. 8.1.55.
UNIT 5
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0 ORIGIN 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P2.0 2P3.46411 2P50.0
HOLE 1 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 2.0 0.0 0.0
To describe the basic array for the problem, UNIT
s 5 is stacked in
a 4 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 1 as shown in Fig. 8.1.59. The input data for the ARRAY
are the following:
ARA=1 NUX=4 NUY=2 NUZ=1 FILL F5 END FILL
Next, the ARRAY
(ARRAY 1
) is placed in UNIT
6, and
UNIT
s 7 and 8 are defined to be placed to the left and right of it
(see Fig. 8.1.63). UNIT
7 will complete the two rods at the left
boundary of the ARRAY
and will contain half of the far left rod in
the completed configuration. In the description of UNIT
7, the
ZHEMICYL+X
is half of the far right rod and is located with its cut
face at the left boundary of a box that is as tall as the entire
ARRAY
of Fig. 8.1.59. The first HOLE 3
in UNIT 7
completes
the lower left rod of that ARRAY
, and the second HOLE 3
completes the upper left rod. UNIT 8
is constructed in similar
fashion to complete the two rods at the right of the ARRAY
shown in
Fig. 8.1.59. UNIT 8
is the mirror image of UNIT 7
.
UNIT
s 6, 7, and 8 are stacked in an ARRAY
(ARRAY2
) to
achieve the configuration shown in Fig. 8.1.63. The data to accomplish
this are listed below.
UNIT 6
ARRAY 1 8.0 6.92822 50.0
GLOBAL
UNIT 7
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2.0 0.0 2P6.92822 2P50.0
HOLE 3 2.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 2.0 3.46411 0.0
UNIT 8
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 0.0 2.0 2P6.92822 2P50.0
HOLE 4 2.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 4 2.0 3.46411 0.0
ARA=2 NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 6 8 END FILL
Next, ARRAY 2
is placed in the cylinder as shown in Fig. 8.1.64. The
data are listed below.
UNIT 9
ARRAY 2 10.0 6.92822 50.0
CYLINDER 0 1 12.4 2P50.0
CYLINDER 2 1 12.65 2P50.0
Now UNIT
s 10 and 11 are described and placed above and below the
ARRAY
. These UNIT
s are shown in Fig. 8.1.65. UNIT 10
is
described to complete the two central rods at the top of the ARRAY
of Fig. 8.1.64. Fig. 8.1.65 and Fig. 8.1.66 illustrate these UNIT
s.
The ZHEMICYLY
is placed at the top of the UNIT
to describe
half of the rod at the very top of the ARRAY
. The first HOLE 2
completes the left center rod at the top of the ARRAY
pictured in
Fig. 8.1.64. The second HOLE 2
completes the right center rod at
the top of the ARRAY
. UNIT 11
is described in similar fashion.
It is the mirror image of UNIT 10
and is placed below the
ARRAY
of Fig. 8.1.64. The resulting configuration is shown in
Fig. 8.1.65.
UNIT 10
ZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 2P50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P4.0 0.0 3.46411 2P50.0
HOLE 2 2.0 3.46411 0.0 2P50.0
HOLE 2 2.0 3.46411 0.0
UNIT 11
ZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 2P50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P4.0 3.46411 0.0 2P50.0
HOLE 1 2.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 3.46411 0.0
Now UNIT
s 10 and 11 are placed above and below the ARRAY
of
Fig. 8.1.64 to obtain the configuration shown in Fig. 8.1.66.
UNIT 9
ARRAY 2 10.0 6.92822 50.0
CYLINDER 0 1 12.4 2P50.0
HOLE 10 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 11 0.0 10.39233 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 12.65 2P50.0
To complete the array, the remaining half cylinders must be entered as
HOLE
s, as shown below. The first HOLE 1
completes the half rod
at the lower left of Fig. 8.1.66. The second HOLE 1
completes the
half rod at the lower center, and the third HOLE 1
completes the
half rod at the lower right of Fig. 8.1.66. Similarly, the first
HOLE 2
completes the half rod at the upper left of Fig. 8.1.66.
The second HOLE 2
completes the half rod at the upper center, and
the third HOLE 2
completes the half rod at the upper right.
HOLE 3
completes the half rod at the left of Fig. 8.1.66, and
HOLE 4
completes the half rod at the right. The final geometry
configuration is shown in Fig. 8.1.67. UNIT 9
must be specified as
the GLOBAL UNIT
because it defines the overall configuration.
GLOBAL UNIT 9
ARRAY 2 10.0 6.92822 50.0
CYLINDER 0 1 12.4 2P50.0
HOLE 10 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 11 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 3 10.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 4 10.0 0.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 12.65 2P50.0
The geometry data for Example 2b are given below.
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
ZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 2
ZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 3
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 4
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
UNIT 5
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0 ORIGIN 2.0 0.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P2.0 2P3.46411 2P50.0
HOLE 1 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 2.0 0.0 0.0
UNIT 6
ARRAY 1 8.0 6.92822 50.0
UNIT 7
ZHEMICYL+X 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2.0 0.0 2P6.92822 2P50.0
HOLE 3 2.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 2.0 3.46411 0.0
UNIT 8
ZHEMICYLX 1 1 2.0 50.0 50.0
CUBOID 0 1 0.0 2.0 2P6.92822 2P50.0
HOLE 3 0.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 3 0.0 3.46411 0.0
UNIT 10
YZHEMICYLY 1 1 2.0 2P50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P4.0 0.0 3.46411 2P50.0
HOLE 2 2.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 2 2.0 3.46411 0.0
UNIT 11
YZHEMICYL+Y 1 1 2.0 2P50.0
CUBOID 0 1 2P4.0 3.46411 0.0 2P50.0
HOLE 1 2.0 3.46411 0.0
HOLE 1 2.0 3.46411 0.0
GLOBAL
UNIT 9
ARRAY 2 10.0 6.92822 50.0
CYLINDER 0 1 12.4 2P50.0
HOLE 10 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 11 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 1 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 1 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 2 0.0 10.39233 0.0
HOLE 2 6.0 6.92822 0.0
HOLE 3 10.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 4 10.0 0.0 0.0
CYLINDER 2 1 12.65 2P50.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY
ARA=1 NUX=4 NUY=2 NUZ=1 FILL F5 END FILL
ARA=2 NUX=3 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 7 6 8 END FILL
END ARRAY
8.1.4.6.7. Dodecahedral pitched arrays
EXAMPLE 22.
Dodecahedral pitched ARRAYs can be described in KENOVI by defining the UNITs that make up the ARRAY as dodecahedra and in the ARRAY data block setting TYP=DODECAHEDRAL. Since the ARRAYs are constructed by stacking dodecahedra, care must be taken to ensure the ARRAY boundary is completely enclosed within the stacked unit. Below is an example of a dodecahedral ARRAY that represents a close packed ARRAY of spheres.
The first and second UNITs are the dodecahedra that make up the ARRAY. UNIT 1 is the fuel sphere stacked in a dodecahedral lattice. UNIT 2 is a dummy UNIT used to fill in the ARRAY so the ARRAY boundary is contained within the stacked UNITs. Since the ARRAY is not moderated, UNIT 2 contains void. Fig. 8.1.68 shows an isometric, cross section view of UNITs 1 and 2.
UNIT 1
COM='SINGLE CELL FUEL CAN IN DODECAHDRON'
SPHERE 10 8.0
SPHERE 20 8.5
DODECAHEDRON 30 10.5
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 20 10
MEDIA 0 1 30 20
BOUNDARY 30
UNIT 2
COM='EMPTY CELL'
DODECAHEDRON 10 10.5
MEDIA 0 1 10
BOUNDARY 10
UNIT 3 is the GLOBAL UNIT that contains the ARRAY and ARRAY BOUNDARY. The ARRAY is an unmoderated triangular pitched assembly of 17 fuel spheres. Dodecahedral ARRAYs are specified by using TYP= followed by keyword dodecahedral in the array data block. The X and Y coordinates are stacked together as a square pitched ARRAY with the pitch equal to twice the dodecahedron radius. In the Z dimension, the odd Z planes (Z = 1, 3, 5, etc.) have the X and Y UNITs begin at the most negative edge of the ARRAY, while the even Z planes (Z = 2, 4, 6, etc.) have the X and Y UNITs begin one dodecahedron inscribed sphere radius in the positive direction from the most negative edge of the ARRAY. Also, the Z distance between the centers of the UNITs in successive Z planes is the square root of 2.0 times the dodecahedron radius (or the dodecahedron diameter divided by the square root of 2.0). Fig. 8.1.69 and Fig. 8.1.70 show XY cross sectional color plots of the assembly at an odd and even Z plane.
GLOBAL UNIT 3
COM='17 CLOSE PACKED FUEL SPHERES IN A CYLINDER'
CYLINDER 10 41.0 44.5 0.0
CYLINDER 20 42.0 44.5 1.0
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 3 3 1 3*0.0
MEDIA 3 20 10
BOUNDARY 20
READ ARRAY GBL=1 ARA=1 TYP=DODECAHEDRAL NUX=5 NUY=5 NUZ=5
FILL 25*2
6*2 2*1 3*2 2*1 12*2
6*2 3*1 2*2 3*1 2*2 3*1 6*2
6*2 2*1 3*2 2*1 12*2
25*2 END FILL END ARRAY
The overall problem description is shown below. The cross section library would be generated in a separate CSASMG step.
Data description of Example 22.
=KENOVI
CLOSE PACKED DODECAHEDRAL ARRAY 17 FUEL SPHERES IN A CYLINDER
READ PARAMETERS LNG=20000 LIB=4 END PARAMETERS
READ MIXT SCT=2
MIX=1 NCM=8 92235 1.37751E03 92238 9.92354E05 8016 3.32049E02
9019 2.95349E03 1001 6.05028E02
MIX=2 NCM=14 13027 6.02374E02
MIX=3 NCM=14 13027 6.02374E02
END MIXT
READ GEOMETRY
UNIT 1
COM='SINGLE CELL FUEL CAN IN DODECAHDRON'
SPHERE 10 8.0
SPHERE 20 8.5
DODECAHEDRON 30 10.5
MEDIA 1 1 10
MEDIA 2 1 20 10
MEDIA 0 1 30 20
BOUNDARY 30
UNIT 2
COM='EMPTY CELL'
DODECAHEDRON 10 10.5
MEDIA 0 1 10
BOUNDARY 10
GLOBAL UNIT 3
COM='9 CLOSE PACKED FUEL SPHERES IN A CYLINDER'
CYLINDER 10 41.0 44.5 0.0
CYLINDER 20 42.0 44.5 1.0
ARRAY 1 10 PLACE 3 3 1 3*0.0
MEDIA 3 1 20 10
BOUNDARY 20
END GEOMETRY
READ ARRAY GBL=1 ARA=1 TYP=DODECAHEDRAL NUX=5 NUY=5 NUZ=5
FILL 25*2
6*2 2*1 3*2 2*1 12*2
6*2 3*1 2*2 3*1 2*2 3*1 6*2
6*2 2*1 3*2 2*1 12*2
25*2 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='DODECAHEDRAL ARRAY, 4 SPHERES  Z LEVEL = 2'
XUL=43.0 YUL=43.0 ZUL=14.85 XLR=43.0 YLR=43.0 ZLR=14.85
UAX=1 VDN=1 NAX=640 END PLT0
TTL='DODECAHEDRAL ARRAY, 9 SPHERES  Z LEVEL = 3'
XUL=43.0 YUL=43.0 ZUL=29.70 XLR=43.0 YLR=43.0 ZLR=29.70
UAX=1 VDN=1 NAX=640 END PLT1
END PLOT
END DATA
END
8.1.4.7. Alternative sample problem mockups
The geometry data for KENO can often be described correctly in several ways. Some alternative geometry descriptions are given here for sample problems C.12 and C.13. (See Sect. 8.1.8.3 of the KENO manual.)
8.1.4.7.1. Sample Problem C.12, First Alternative
This mockup maintains the same overall unit dimensions that were used in sample problem C.12. In sample problem C.12, the origin of UNIT 1, the solution cylinder, is at the center of the unit; the origin of UNITs 2, 3, 4, and 5, the metal cylinders, are at the center of the cylinders. In this mockup, the unit numbers remain the same and the origin of each unit is at the center of the unit. In each unit the cylinder is offset by specifying the position of its centerline relative to the origin of the UNIT.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 2 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 3 1 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 0 1 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 9.3975 1.3975 ORIG 4.285 4.285
CUBOID 0 1 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 9.3975 1.3675 ORIG 4.285 4.285
CUBOID 0 1 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 1.3675 9.3975 ORIG 4.285 4.285
CUBOID 0 1 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
UNIT 5
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 1.3675 9.3975 ORIG 4.285 4.285
CUBOID 0 1 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 2 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 3 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 5.748 9.3975 1.3675 ORIG X=4.285 Y=4.285
CUBOID 2 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 5.748 9.3975 1.3675 ORIG X=4.285 Y=4.285
CUBOID 2 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 5.748 1.3675 9.3975 ORIG X=4.285 Y=4.285
CUBOID 2 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 5
CYLINDER 1 5.748 1.3675 9.3975 ORIG X=4.285 Y=4.285
CUBOID 2 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.875 10.24 10.24
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 6
CUBOID 1 21.75 21.75 21.75 21.75 20.48 20.48
ARRAY 1 PLACE 1 1 1 10.875 10.875 10.24
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 END ARRAY
8.1.4.7.2. Sample Problem C.12, Second Alternative
In this mockup, the outer boundaries of the system are made as close fitting as possible on all six faces. The origin of each UNIT is located at the center of the cylinder. UNITs 1, 3, 5, and 7 contain the metal cylinders. UNITs 2, 4, 6, and 8 contain the solution cylinders.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 0 1 6.59 5.748 6.59 14.445 6.225 13.54
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 2 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 3 1 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 0 1 10.16 10.875 10.875 10.16 10.24 9.525
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 0 1 6.59 5.748 14.444 6.59 6.225 13.54
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 2 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 3 1 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 0 1 10.16 10.875 10.16 10.875 10.24 9.525
UNIT 5
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 0 1 6.59 5.748 6.59 14.445 13.54 6.225
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 2 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 3 1 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 0 1 10.16 10.875 10.875 10.16 9.525 10.24
UNIT 7
CYLINDER 1 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 0 1 6.59 5.748 14.445 6.59 13.54 6.225
UNIT 8
CYLINDER 2 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 3 1 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 0 1 10.16 10.875 10.16 10.875 9.525 10.24
READ ARRAY NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL 6I1 8 END FILL END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 2 6.59 5.748 6.59 14.445 6.225 13.54
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 2 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 3 10.16 10.875 10.875 10.16 10.24 9.525
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 2 6.59 5.748 14.444 6.59 6.225 13.54
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 2 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 3 10.16 10.875 10.16 10.875 10.24 9.525
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 5
CYLINDER 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 2 6.59 5.748 6.59 14.445 13.54 6.225
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 2 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 3 10.16 10.875 10.875 10.16 9.525 10.24
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
UNIT 7
CYLINDER 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
CUBOID 2 6.59 5.748 14.445 6.59 13.54 6.225
MEDIA 1 1 1MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
UNIT 8
CYLINDER 1 9.525 8.89 8.89
CYLINDER 2 10.16 9.525 9.525
CUBOID 3 10.16 10.875 10.16 10.875 9.525 10.24
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 3 1 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 3 2
BOUNDARY 3
GLOBAL UNIT 9
CUBOID 1 20.035 12.748 20.67 20.67 19.765 19.765
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 7.00 6.225 6.225
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL 6I1 8 END FILL END ARRAY
8.1.4.7.3. Sample Problem C.13, Alternative
This mockup maintains the same overall UNIT dimensions that were used in sample problem C.13, (KENO Manual, Sect. 8.1.8.3). In sample problem C.13, the origin of UNITs 1, 2, and 3 is located at the center of the base of the uranium metal cuboid. In this mockup, the origin of UNITs 1 and 2 is located at the center of the cylinder. In UNIT 3, the origin is at the center of the UNIT.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CUBOID 1 1 0.2566 12.4434 6.35 6.35 3.81 3.81
CYLINDER 0 1 13.97 3.81 3.81
CYLINDER 1 1 19.05 3.81 3.81
CUBOID 0 1 19.05 19.05 19.05 19.05 3.81 3.81
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 1 12.4434 0.2566 6.35 6.35 4.28 4.28
CYLINDER 0 1 13.97 4.28 4.28
CYLINDER 1 1 19.05 4.28 4.28
CUBOID 0 1 19.05 19.05 19.05 19.05 4.28 4.28
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 1 12.4434 0.2566 6.35 6.35 1.308 1.308
CUBOID 0 1 19.05 19.05 19.05 19.05 1.308 1.308
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL 1 2 3 END ARRAY
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CUBOID 1 0.2566 12.4434 6.35 6.35 3.81 3.81
CYLINDER 2 13.97 3.81 3.81
CYLINDER 3 19.05 3.81 3.81
CUBOID 4 19.05 19.05 19.05 19.05 3.81 3.81
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 1 1 3 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 4 3 2 1
BOUNDARY 4
UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 12.4434 0.2566 6.35 6.35 4.28 4.28
CYLINDER 2 13.97 4.28 4.28
CYLINDER 3 19.05 4.28 4.28
CUBOID 4 19.05 19.05 19.05 19.05 4.28 4.28
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 1 1 3 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 4 3 2 1
BOUNDARY 4
UNIT 3
CUBOID 1 12.4434 0.2566 6.35 6.35 1.308 1.308
CUBOID 2 19.05 19.05 19.05 19.05 1.308 1.308
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
BOUNDARY 2
GLOBAL UNIT 4
CUBOID 1 19.05 19.05 19.05 19.05 6.896 11.90
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 2 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=3 FILL 1 2 3 END ARRAY
8.1.4.8. Initial starting distributions with Start data
Sect. 8.1.3.8 discusses the input directions for entering different starting distributions in the start data input block. The following start type 0 and start type 6 examples demonstrate how KENO codes process the entered start data parameters.
Example1:
An 8 cm radius fissile sphere without a start data block is modeled with both KENOVI and KENO V.a geometries. Start type 0, which is the default starting option, is used, and neutrons are started uniformly in the entire volume defined by the outermost geometry (fissile sphere).
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
end data
end
KENO V.a:
' input without global unit
...
read geometry
unit 1
sphere 1 1 8
end geometry
end data
end
' input with global unit
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 1 8
end geometry
end data
end
Example2:
This input models a simple 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 2 array of fissile cylinders with the default starting option, which is start type 0. In this array problem, XSM, YSM, and ZSM are defaulted to the minimum X, Y, and Z coordinates of the global array, and XSP, YSP, and ZSP are defaulted to the maximum coordinates of the global array. A bounding box is constructed with these values, and neutrons are started at the points uniformly sampled inside the fissile cylinders within this cuboid (For KENO V.a model, the cuboid is defined by +x=27.48, x=0.0, +y=27.48, y=0.0, +z= 26.02, z= 0.0, and for KENOVI model, it is defined by +x=13.74, x=13.74, +y=13.74, y=13.74, +z= 13.01, z=13.01).
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
unit 1
cylinder 1 5.748 2p5.3825
cuboid 2 4p6.87 2p6.505
media 1 1 1
media 0 1 2 1
boundary 2
global unit 2
cuboid 10 4p13.74 2p13.01
array 1 +10 place 1 1 1 2r6.87 6.505
boundary 10
end geometry
read array
gbl=1 ara=1 nux=2 nuy=2 nuz=2 fill f1 end fill
end array
end data
end
KENO V.a:
' input with a global array
...
read geometry
unit 1
cylinder 1 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
cuboid 0 1 6.87 6.87 6.87 6.87 6.505 6.505
end geometry
read array
gbl=1 ara=1 nux=2 nuy=2 nuz=2 fill f1 end fill
end array
end data
end
Example3:
Neutrons are started uniformly throughout the fissile materials in a userdefined box that is inside the outermost geometry (+x=3.0 x=3.0 +y= 1.0 y=1.0 +z= 2.0 z=2.0).
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
READ START
NST=0
XSP=3.0 XSM=3.0 YSP=1.0 YSM=1.0 ZSP=2.0 ZSM=2.0
END START
end data
end
Example4:
This test case is another example of the start type 0 specification with a userdefined cuboid, but whole cuboid is not inside the outermost geometry. KENO V.a immediately terminates the execution with some error messages since some starting points are sampled outside the outermost geometry.
Unlike KENO V.a, KENOVI continues the sampling process by discarding these points, which are outside the global geometry, until all starting points have been successfully sampled throughout the fissile regions inside the global unit.
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
READ START
NST=0
XSP=10.0 XSM=10.0 YSP=10.0 YSM=10.0 ZSP=10.0 ZSM=10.0
END START
end data
end
Note
Note that the KENOVI sampling process for such a case will be terminated if
the first starting point has not been sampled in tbtch minutes. tbtch is the time per generation in minutes, defaulted to 10 minutes. User can control this with parameter TBA= in parameter input; see Sect. 8.1.3.3 for details, or
all points have not been successfully sampled inside the global units in total tbtch \(\times\) 9.5 minutes.
Example5:
This test input demonstrates how KENOVI performs source sampling with the default starting type (start type 0) if the boundary definition vector of the global unit has the multiple body labels. For such cases, KENOVI starts neutrons at the points that are uniformly sampled in the first body entered in the boundary definition vector of the global unit if and only if none of translation and transformation operations are performed on this body. For this KENOVI specific example, all starting points are sampled throughout the fissile materials inside the cylinder 3.
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8.741
sphere 2 10.0
cylinder 3 8.0 2p8.0
media 1 1 1
media 2 1 2 3 1
BOUNDARY 3 2
end geometry
end data
end
Example6:
Start type 0 specification with one or more missing optional parameters; their default values (0.0) are used to construct a cuboid, and neutrons are started uniformly throughout the fissile materials in this box (+x=3.0 x=0.0 +y= 1.0 y=0.0 +z=0.0 z=2.0).
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
READ START
NST=0
XSP=3.0 YSP=1.0 ZSM=2.0
END START
end data
end
Note
In start data input, userdefined cuboid shape is considered as a deformed cuboid shape if the minimum and maximum bounds in any dimension are equal entries (XSP = XSM or/and YSP = YSM or/and ZSP = ZSM). Deformed shape specification is a legitimate input specification across SCALE sequences (i.e., a box is deformed into a plane if minimum and maximum bounds in one dimension are the same, e.g., +x = x). In such a case, userdefined entries for XSM, XSP, YSM, YSP, ZSM, and ZSP are ignored, and source sampling is performed throughout the volume defined by the outermost geometry card.
The following two examples with start type 0 demonstrate code behavior for the deformed shapes for start types 0, 1, 2, and 7.
Example7:
Box defined with missing ZSM, and ZSP is considered as a deformed cuboid since these parameters are identical after defaulting their values to 0.0. Instead of this deformed cuboid box, neutrons are started uniformly throughout the fissile materials in the global unit.
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
READ START
NST=0
XSP=3.0 XSM=3.0 YSP=1.0 YSM=1.0
END START
end data
end
Example8:
A box defined with identical XSM and XSP entries is considered as a deformed cuboid since these parameters are identical after defaulting their values to 0.0. Instead of this deformed cuboid box, neutrons are started uniformly throughout the fissile materials in the global unit.
KENOVI:
...
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
READ START
NST=0
XSP=3.0 XSM=3.0 YSP=1.1 YSM=2.1 ZSP=4.0 ZSM=4.1
END START
end data
end
In the start type 6 capability, the selection process for the initial fission source points depends on the values of the last LNU value and number per generation (parameter NPG= in the parameter input Sect. 8.1.3.3). The following rules are applied when selecting the starting points:
Start NPG initial fission neutrons at firstNPG starting points defined by start type 6 data if NPG < LNU. Remaining starting points beyond NPG will be discarded.
Start NPG initial fission neutrons at LNU starting points defined by start type 6 data if NPG = LNU.
Start LNU initial fission neutrons at the starting points defined by start type 6 data, then randomly select the remaining fission source points (NPGLNU) from these starting points if NPG > LNU.
Warning
It is the user’s responsibility to enter all arbitrary starting points consistent with the geometry specified. Both KENO V.a and KENOVI terminate the execution with several error messages if any userspecified starting point entered is outside the outermost geometry.
Example9:
In this example, 120 starting points have been defined by start type 6 data, and NPG=100 starting points are selected from the defined start type 6 data, 25 neutrons are started at the point (2.0, 3.0, 0.0), 20 neutrons are started at the point (3.0, 2.0, 6.0), and the remaining 55 neutrons are started at (3.0, 5.2, 1.0). All selected points are relative to the global coordinate system. Missing TFX entry in the last start type 6 data set is set to the last updated TFX value which is 3.0.
KENOVI:
...
READ PARAMETER
NPG=100
END PARAMETER
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
READ START
NST=6
TFX=2.0 TFY= 3.0 TFZ=0.0 LNU=25
TFX=3.0 TFY=2.0 TFZ=6.0 LNU=45
TFY=5.2 TFZ=1.0 LNU=120
END START
end data
end
Example10:
In this example, only 45 starting points have been defined by start type 6 data. The first 25 neutrons are started at the point (2.0, 0.0, 0.0), and 20 neutrons are started at the point (2.0, 3.0, 6.0). The remaining 55 neutrons are started at the points randomly selected from these starting points. All selected points are relative to the global coordinate system. Missing TFY and TFZ entries are defaulted to 0.0 in the first start type 6 data set. The missing TFX entry in the last start type 6 data set is set to the last updated TFX value, which is 2.0 (from the previous start type 6 data set).
KENOVI:
...
READ PARAMETER
NPG=100
END PARAMETER
read geometry
global unit 1
sphere 1 8
media 1 1 1
boundary 1
end geometry
READ START
NST=6
TFX=2.0 LNU=25
TFY=3.0 TFZ=6.0 LNU=45
END START
end data
end
Example11:
In this example, 35 neutrons are started at the point (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) relative to the global array element (2,1,1), and the remaining 65 neutrons are started at the point (2.0, 1.0, 3.0) relative to the global array element (1,2,2). The missing TFX, TFY, and TFZ entries in each data set are defaulted to 0.0.
KENO V.a:
...
READ PARAMETER
NPG=100
END PARAMETER
read geometry
unit 1
cylinder 1 1 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
cuboid 0 1 6.87 6.87 6.87 6.87 6.505 6.505
end geometry
read array
gbl=1 ara=1 nux=2 nuy=2 nuz=2 fill f1 end fill
end array
READ START
NST=6
NXS=2 NYS=1 NZS=1 LNU=35
TFX=2.0 TFY=1.0 TFZ=3.0 NXS=1 NYS=2 NZS=2 LNU=100
END START
end data
end
Start type 6 is capable of reading starting points from an ASCII start data file, which could be created by writing starting points from a previous calculation, defined by RDU in a start type 6 data set. See Sect. 8.1.3.8.1 for the details about a typical ASCII start data file currently supported.
Reading starting data from multiple ASCII start data files is also supported. Similarly, single or multiple start type 6 date sets with RDU specification can be used together with other start type 6 data sets discussed above. The following examples demonstrate this capability.
Example12:
In this example, all starting points stored in the ASCII start data file sample.src are read, and NPG neutrons are started at these points. If the number of starting points (last LNU read from the file) is less than NPG, LNU number of neutrons are started at the points read, and the remaining neutrons (NPGLNU) are started at the points randomly sampled from the starting points already read. The starting points beyond NPG are discarded if NPG is less than the number of starting points read.
...
READ START
NST=6
RDU=sample.src
END START
Example13:
The first 32 starting points stored in the ASCII start data file sample.src are read, and NPG neutrons are started at these points. If NPG > LNU = 32, then 32 neutrons are started at these starting points, and the remaining neutrons are started at the points randomly sampled from these 32 starting points. The starting points beyond NPG is discarded if NPG < 32.
...
READ START
NST=6
RDU=sample.src LNU=32
END START
Note
Reading starting data from multiple ASCII start data files is also supported. Similarly, single or multiple start type 6 date sets with the RDU specification can be used together with other start type 6 data sets discussed above. The following examples demonstrates this capability.
Example14:
A total of 30 starting points are read both from the specified ASCII start data files and from the start type 6 data set defined with TFX, TFY, and TFZ. Neutrons are started at these points. If there is a shortage of starting points (NPG >> last LNU), then the required number of starting points is randomly sampled from these 30 starting points.
...
READ START
NST=6
RDU=sample1.src LNU=10
RDU=sample2.src LNU=25
TFX=1.0 TFY=3.0 TFZ=4.0 LNU=30
END START
8.1.4.9. Biasing or weighting data for multigroup mode
Sect. 8.1.4.6.3 discusses the basis of weighting or biasing. The use of biasing data in reflected problems has been illustrated in Examples 9, 10, and 11 of Sect. 8.1.4.6. Sect. 8.1.3.7 discusses the input directions for entering biasing data.
Every shape card in KENO V.a, or MEDIA card in KENOVI requires a bias ID to associate that geometry region with a biasing or weighting function. A biasing or weighting function is a set of energydependent values of the average weight that are applicable in a given region. The default function for all bias IDs is constant through all energy groups and is defined to be the default value of weight average which can be specified in the parameter data. A bias ID can be associated with a biasing function (other than default) by specifying it in the biasing input data. This function can be chosen from the weighting library, or it can be entered from records. Table 8.1.25 lists the materials and energy group structures for biasing functions available from the weighting library.
Caution
In general, the use of biasing should be restricted to external reflectors unless the user has generated correct biasing functions for other applications. Improper use of biasing functions can result in erroneous answers without giving any indication that they are invalid. Caution should be exercised in the generation and use of biasing functions.
Biasing functions are most applicable to thick external reflectors. Their use can significantly reduce the amount of computer time required to obtain answers in KENO. If the user wishes to use a biasing function for a concrete reflector, for example, the following steps must be included in preparing the input data:
1. The geometry region data must define the shape and dimensions of the reflector using the mixture ID for concrete and a sequence of bias IDs that associate the geometry region with the appropriate interval of the concrete weighting function. CAUTION: THE THICKNESS AND SEQUENTIAL LOCATION OF EACH REGION USING BIASING FUNCTIONS MUST MATCH OR VERY NEARLY MATCH THE INCREMENT THICKNESS AND ORDER OF THE WEIGHTING DATA. NO CHECK IS MADE ON THE REQUIREMENT. IT IS THE USER’S RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE CONSISTENCY.
2. Biasing data must be entered. This must include the material ID for the reflector material (from Table 8.1.25 or as specified on records) and a beginning and ending bias ID. The beginning bias ID is used to select the first set of energydependent average weights, and the subsequent sets of energydependent average weights are assigned consecutive IDs until the ending bias ID is reached.
Small deviations in reflector region thickness are allowed, such as using three generated regions with a thickness per region of 5.08 cm to generate a 15.24 cm thick reflector of concrete, or using five generated regions with a thickness per region of 3.048 cm to generate a 15.24 cm thick reflector of water. See Table 8.1.25 for a list of the increment thicknesses for the materials in the weighting library. It is acceptable for the thickness of the last reflector region to be significantly different than the increment thickness. For example, a reflector record specifying five generated regions with a thickness per region of 3.0 cm could be followed by a reflector record specifying one region with a thickness per region of 0.24 cm. Assuming that material 2 is water and a 15.24 cm thick cuboidal reflector of water is desired, the required reflector description and biasing data could be entered as follows:
KENO V.a:
REFLECTOR 2 2 6*3.0 5
REFLECTOR 2 7 6*0.24 1
READ BIAS ID=500 2 7 END BIAS
KENOVI:
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CUBOID 1 6P10.0
CUBOID 2 6P13.0
CUBOID 3 6P16.0
CUBOID 4 6P19.0
CUBOID 5 6P22.0
CUBOID 6 6P25.0
CUBOID 7 6P25.24
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 2 2 1
MEDIA 2 3 3 2
MEDIA 2 4 4 3
MEDIA 2 5 5 4
MEDIA 2 6 6 5
MEDIA 2 7 7 6
BOUNDARY 7
READ BIAS ID=500 2 7 END BIAS
The same 15.24 cm thick reflector can be described by including the extra 0.24 cm in the last region as shown below:
KENO V.a:
REFLECTOR 2 2 6*3.0 4
REFLECTOR 2 6 6*3.24 1
READ BIAS ID=500 2 6 END BIAS
KENOVI:
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CUBOID 1 6P10.0
CUBOID 2 6P13.0
CUBOID 3 6P16.0
CUBOID 4 6P19.0
CUBOID 5 6P22.0
CUBOID 6 6P25.24
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 2 2 2 1
MEDIA 2 3 3 2
MEDIA 2 4 4 3
MEDIA 2 5 5 4
MEDIA 2 6 6 5
BOUNDARY 6
READ BIAS ID=500 2 6 END BIAS
Here the weighting functions associated with bias IDs 2, 3, 4, and 5 each have a thickness of 3.0 cm, corresponding exactly to the increment thickness for water in Table 8.1.25 Bias ID 6 is used for the last generated region which is 3.24 cm thick.
The following examples illustrate the use of biasing data. Suppose the user wishes to use the weighting function for water from Table 8.1.25 for bias IDs 2 through 6. The biasing input data would then be:
READ BIAS ID=500 2 6 END BIAS
The energydependent values of weight average for the first 3 cm interval of water will be used for weighting the geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 2. The energydependent values of weight average for the second 3 cm interval of water will be used for geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 3, etc. Thus, the energydependent values of weight average for the fifth 3 cm interval of water will be used for geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 6. Geometry regions that use bias IDs other than 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 will use the default value of weight average that is constant for all energies as a biasing function.
Several sets of biasing data can be entered at once. Assume the user wishes to use the weighting function for concrete from Table 8.1.25 for bias IDs 2 through 4 and the weighting function for water for bias IDs 5 through 7. The appropriate input data block is the following:
READ BIAS ID=301 2 4 ID=500 5 7 END BIAS
The energydependent values of weight average for the first 5 cm interval of concrete will be used for the geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 2, the energydependent values of weight average for the second 5 cm interval of concrete will be used for the geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 3, and the energydependent values of weight average for the third 5 cm interval of concrete will be used for the geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 4. The energydependent values of weight average for the first 3 cm interval of water will be used for geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 5, the values for the second 3 cm interval of water will be used for geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 6, and the values for the third 3 cm interval of water will be used for geometry regions that specify a bias ID of 7. The default value of weight average will be used for all bias IDs outside the range of 2–7.
If the biasing data block defines the same bias ID more than once, the value that is entered last supersedes previous entries. Assuming that the following data block is entered,
READ BIAS ID=400 2 7 ID=500 5 7 END BIAS
the data for paraffin (ID=400) will be used for bias IDs 2, 3, and 4, and the data for water (ID=500) will be used for bias IDs 5, 6, and 7.
EXAMPLE 1. USE OF BIASING DATA
It is assumed that a 5 cm radius sphere of material 2 is reflected by a 20 cm thickness of material 1 (concrete). The concrete reflector is spherical and close fitting upon the sphere of material 2. The mixing table must specify material 1 and material 2. Material 1 must be defined as concrete. The geometry and biasing data should be entered as follows:
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
SPHERE 2 1 5.0
REPLICATE 1 2 5.0 4
END GEOM
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
KENOVI:
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
SPHERE 1 5.0
SPHERE 2 10.0
SPHERE 3 15.0
SPHERE 4 20.0
SPHERE 5 25.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 1 2 2 1
MEDIA 1 3 3 2
MEDIA 1 4 4 3
MEDIA 1 5 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
END GEOM
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
The bias ID for the first generated region is 2, the second is 3, the third is 4, and the fourth is 5. The biasing data block specifies that the biasing function for material ID 301 (concrete) will be used from the weighting library. The bias ID to which the energydependent weighting function for the first 5.0 cm interval of concrete is applied is 2; the energydependent weighting function for the fourth 5 cm interval of concrete is applied to the fourth generated geometry region. This generated region has a bias ID of 5.
In KENO V.a, Example 1 can also be described without using a reflector record as shown below. The records that are generated by the reflector record in the previous set of data are identical to the last four spheres in this mockup.
EXAMPLE 1. Use of biasing without a reflector record.
KENO V.a:
READ GEOM
SPHERE 2 1 5.0
SPHERE 1 2 10.0
SPHERE 1 3 15.0
SPHERE 1 4 20.0
SPHERE 1 5 25.0
END GEOM
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
8.1.4.10. Color plots
Plots are generated only if a plot data block has been entered for the problem and PLT=NO has not been entered in the parameter data or the plot data. See Sect. 8.1.3.11 for a description of plot data. When a plot is to be made, the user MUST correctly specify the upper lefthand corner of the plot with respect to the origin of the plot. The origin of a plot is defined as the origin of the GLOBAL UNIT.
Plots can represent mixture numbers, unit numbers, or bias ID numbers. A title can be entered for each plot. If plot titles are omitted, the title of the KENO case will be printed for each plot title until a plot title is entered. If a plot title is entered and a subsequent plot title is omitted, the last plot title prior to the omitted one will be used for the omitted one.
The upper left and lower right coordinates define the area (i.e., the slice and its location) for which the plot is to be made. The direction cosines across the plot and the direction cosines down the plot define the direction of the vector across the plot and the vector down the plot with respect to the geometry coordinate system. One of the simplest ways of generating a plot is to specify the desired coordinates of the upper left and lower right corners of the plot. Then one must determine which plot axis is to be across the plot and which is to be down. The sign of the direction cosine should be consistent with the direction of that component when moving from the upper left to lower right corner. For example, to draw a plot of an XZ slice at Y = 5.0 with X across the plot and Z down the plot for a system whose X coordinates ranges from 0.0 to 10.0 and whose Z coordinates range from 0.0 to 20.0, the upper left coordinate could be XUL=0.0 YUL=5.0 ZUL=20.0 and the lower right coordinates could be XLR=10.0 YLR=5.0 ZLR=0.0. Since X is to be plotted across the plot with X = 0.0 at the left and X = 10.0 at the right, only the X component of the direction cosines across the plot need be entered. It should be positive because going from 0.0 to 10.0 is moving in the positive direction. Thus, UAX=1.0 would be entered for the direction cosines across the plot. VAX and WAX could be omitted. Z is to be plotted down the plot with Z = 20.0 at the top and Z = 0.0 at the bottom. Therefore, only the Z component of the direction cosines down the plot needs to be defined. It should be negative because moving from 20.0 to 0.0 is moving in the negative direction. Thus, WDN = 1.0 would be entered for the direction cosines down the plot. UDN and VDN could be omitted. The sign of the direction cosines should be consistent with the coordinates of the upper left and lower right corners in order to get a plot.
It is not necessary that the plot be made for a slice orthogonal to one of the axes. Plots can be made of slices cut at any desired angle, but the user should exercise caution and be well aware of the distortion of shapes that can be introduced. (Nonorthogonal slices through cylinders plot as ellipses.)
The user can specify the horizontal and vertical spacing between points on the plot. It is usually advisable to enter one or the other. Entering both can cause distortion of the plot. DLX= is used to specify the horizontal spacing between points and DLD= is used to specify the vertical spacing between points. When only one of them is specified, the code calculates the correct value of the other so the plot will not be distorted. DLX or DLD can be specified by the user to be small enough to show the desirable detail in the plot. The plot is generated by starting at the upper left corner of the plot and generating a point every DLX across the plot; then moving down DLD and repeating the generation of the points across the plot.
NAX specifies the number of intervals (pixels) that will be printed across the plot. NDN specifies the number of intervals (pixels) that will be printed down the plot. If both NAX and NDN are entered, the plot may be distorted. If one of them is entered, the value of the other will be calculated so the plot will not be distorted.
When a plot is being made, the first pixel represents the coordinates of the upper left corner. The value of DELV is added to the coordinate that is to be printed across the plot, and the next pixel is printed. DELV is added to that value to determine the location of the next pixel, that is, a point is determined every DELV across the plot and a pixel is printed for each point. When a line has been completed, a new line is begun DELU from the first line. This procedure is repeated until the plot is complete.
EXAMPLE 1. SINGLE UNIT WITH CENTERED ORIGIN
Consider two concentric cylinders in a cuboid. The inner cylinder is 5.2 cm in diameter. The outer cylinder has an inside diameter of 7.2 cm and an outside diameter of 7.6 cm. Both cylinders are 30 cm high. They are contained in a tightfitting box with a wall thickness of 0.5 cm and top and bottom thickness of 1.0 cm. The inner cylinder is composed of mixture 1, the outer cylinder is made of mixture 4, and the box is made of mixture 2. The problem can be described with its origin at the center of the inner cylinder. The problem description for this arrangement is shown below:
KENO V.a:
=KENOVA
SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID WITH ORIGIN AT CENTER
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1
MIX=1 92500 4.7048e2
MIX=2 200 1.0
MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 2 1 4P4.3 2P16.0
END GEOM
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLS'
XUL=4.6 YUL=4.6 ZUL=0.0 XLR=4.6 YLR=4.6 ZLR=0.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
PIC=UNIT END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID WITH ORIGIN AT CENTER
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 TME=0.5 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 3 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 4 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 5 4P4.3 2P16.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 4 1 3 2
MEDIA 0 1 4 3
MEDIA 2 1 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
END GEOM
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLS.'
XUL=4.6 YUL=4.6 ZUL=0.0 XLR=4.6 YLR=4.6 ZLR=0.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
PIC=UNIT END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
The plot data blocks included above are set up to draw a mixture map of an XY slice taken at the half height (Z=0.0) and a unit map for the same slice. In the above examples, the geometry dimensions extend from X = 4.3 to X = 4.3, from Y = 4.3, to Y = 4.3, and from Z = 16.0 to Z = 16.0. An XY slice is be printed at the half height (Z = 0.0). The desired plot data sets the upper lefthand corner of the plot to be X = 4.6 and Y = 4.6. The lower righthand corner of the plot is specified as X = 4.6 and Y = 4.6. These data are entered by specifying the upper lefthand corner as XUL= 4.6 YUL=4.6 ZUL=0.0 and the lower righthand corner as XLR=4.6 YLR= 4.6 ZLR=0.0. It is desired to print X across the plot and Y down the plot. Therefore, the X direction cosine is specified across the plot, in the direction from X = 4.6 to X = 4.6 as UAX=1.0. The Y direction cosine is specified down the plot, from Y = 4.6 to Y = 4.6 as VDN= 1.0.
A black border will be printed for points outside the range of the problem geometry description. By setting the plot dimension slightly larger than the geometry dimension, a black border will be printed around the specified plot. This verifies that the outer boundaries of the geometry are contained within the plot dimensions. NAX is the number of pixels across for a color plot. An initial recommended range for NAX is between 600 and 800 pixels. The resulting plots are shown in Fig. 8.1.71 and Fig. 8.1.72. The associated data for both plots are shown in Example 8.1.19 and Example 8.1.20.
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 4
symbol 1 2 3
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 4.6000e+00 4.6000e+00
y 4.6000e+00 4.6000e+00
z 0.0000e+00 0.0000e+00
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 1.4375e02 delv= 1.4375e02 lpi= 10.000
xy slice at z midpoint. single unit concentric cyls
unit map
unit 1
symbol 1
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 4.6000e+00 4.6000e+00
y 4.6000e+00 4.6000e+00
z 0.0000e+00 0.0000e+00
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 1.4375e02 delv= 1.4375e02 lpi= 10.000
EXAMPLE 2. SINGLE UNIT WITH OFFSET ORIGIN.
The physical problem is the same as that described in Example 1: two concentric cylinders in a cuboid. The dimensions are exactly the same, and the difference is in the choice of the origin. In this geometry description, the origin was specified as the most negative point of the unit. Thus, the cylinders must have an origin specified to center them in the cuboid, and the cuboid extends from 0.0 to 8.6 in X and Y and from 0.0 to 32 in Z as shown in the problem description below.
KENO V.a:
=KENO5
SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID WITH ORIGIN AT CORNER
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.6 31.0 1.0 ORIGIN 4.3 4.3
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 31.0 1.0 ORIGIN 4.3 4.3
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 31.0 1.0 ORIGIN 4.3 4.3
CUBOID 0 1 8.1 0.5 8.1 0.5 31.0 1.0
CUBOID 2 1 8.6 0.0 8.6 0.0 32.0 0.0
END GEOM
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLS.'
XUL=0.3 YUL=8.9 ZUL=16.0 XLR=8.9 YLR=0.3 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
PIC=UNIT END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID WITH ORIGIN AT CORNER
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 TME=0.5 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
GLOBAL UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 2.6 31.0 1.0 ORIGIN X=4.3 Y=4.3
CYLINDER 2 3.6 31.0 1.0 ORIGIN X=4.3 Y=4.3
CYLINDER 3 3.8 31.0 1.0 ORIGIN X=4.3 Y=4.3
CUBOID 4 8.1 0.5 8.1 0.5 31.0 1.0
CUBOID 5 8.6 0.0 8.6 0.0 32.0 0.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 4 1 3 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 4 3 2 1
MEDIA 2 1 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
END GEOM
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. SINGLE UNIT CONCENTRIC CYLS.'
XUL=0.3 YUL=8.9 ZUL=16.0 XLR=8.9 YLR=0.3 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
PIC=UNIT NCH='01' END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
The plot data included above will draw a mixture map of an XY slice taken at the half height (Z = 16.0). It will also draw a unit map of the same slice. The plot dimensions extend 0.3 cm beyond the problem dimensions to provide a black border around the plot. The associated plot data specification for the mixture map is shown in Example 8.1.21, the mixture map is shown in Fig. 8.1.73, and the associated plot data for the unit map is shown in Example 8.1.22. The unit map is identical to Fig. 8.1.72 and is not included.
xy slice at z midpoint. single unit concentric cyls.
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 4
symbol 1 2 3
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 3.0000e01 8.9000e+00
y 8.9000e+00 3.0000e01
z 1.6000e+01 1.6000e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 1.4375e02 delv= 1.4375e02 lpi= 10.000
xy slice at z midpoint. single unit concentric cyls.
unit map
unit 1
symbol 1
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 3.0000e01 8.9000e+00
y 8.9000e+00 3.0000e01
z 1.6000e+01 1.6000e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 1.4375e02 delv= 1.4375e02 lpi= 10.000
EXAMPLE 3. A 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 2 UNREFLECTED ARRAY OF CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOIDS
The physical representation of this example is a 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 2 array of the configuration described in Example 1 of this section. The input data description for this array is given below:
KENO V.a:
=KENOVA
2x2x2 BARE ARRAY OF CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 2 1 4P4.3 2P16.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER.'
XUL=0.3 YUL=17.5 ZUL=16.0 XLR=17.5 YLR=0.3 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=12.9.'
XUL=1.0 YUL=12.9 ZUL=65.0 XLR=18.2 YLR=12.9 ZLR=1.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=320 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
2x2x2 BARE ARRAY OF CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 TME=8.5 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 3 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 4 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 5 4P4.3 2P16.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 4 1 3 2 1
MEDIA 0 1 4 3 2 1
MEDIA 2 1 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 17.2 0.0 17.2 0.0 64.0 0.0
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 4.3 4.3 16.0
BOUNDARY 1
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER.'
XUL=0.3 YUL=17.5 ZUL=16.0 XLR=17.5 YLR=0.3 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=12.9.'
XUL=1.0 YUL=12.9 ZUL=65.0 XLR=18.2 YLR=12.9 ZLR=1.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=320 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
As stated at the beginning of Sect. 8.1.4.10, the origin of a plot is defined as the origin of the GLOBAL UNIT. Each individual unit in the array is 8.6 cm wide in X and Y and 32 cm high in Z. Since the array has two units stacked in each direction, the array is 17.2 cm wide in X and Y and is 64 cm high. Therefore, the array exists from X = 0.0 to X = 17.2, from Y = 0.0 to Y = 17.2 and from Z = 0.0 to Z = 64.0.
The first color plot is to generate an XY slice through the array at the half height (Z = 16.0 cm) of the first layer as shown in Fig. 8.1.74. It is desirable to create an image with a larger extent than the global unit to ensure that the boundaries are as expected. This is achieved by setting the boundaries of the plot larger than the array. In this case, the boundaries were arbitrarily set 0.3 cm larger than the array, resulting in a black border around the array. If the plot were to exclude everything external to the array, the following coordinates could have been entered: XUL=0.0 YUL=17.2 ZUL=16.0 XLR=17.2 YLR=0.0 ZLR=16.0. This would have eliminated the black border. The existing plot was made using XUL= 0.3 YUL=17.5 ZUL=16.0 XLR=17.5 YLR= 0.3 ZLR=16.0.
The second color plot is to generate an XZ slice through the center of the front row of the array. In order to obtain a black border, the coordinates of X and Z were arbitrarily set 1.0 cm larger than the boundaries of the array. The center of the front row occurs at Y = 12.9. The coordinates of the plot were: XUL= 1.0 ZUL=65.0 YUL=12.9 XLR=18.2 ZLR= 1.0 YLR=12.9. The resulting mixture map is shown in Fig. 8.1.75.
EXAMPLE 4. A 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 2 REFLECTED ARRAY WITH THE ORIGIN AT THE MOST NEGATIVE POINT OF THE ARRAY
The ARRAY is described in Example 3 of this section with a 6 in. concrete reflector on all faces. The input data description for this array is given below.
KENO V.a:
=KENOVA
2x2x2 REFLECTED ARRAY OF CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 301 1.0
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 2 1 4P4.3 2P16.0
GLOBAL
UNIT 2
ARRAY 1 3*0.0
REFLECTOR 3 2 6*5.0 3
REFLECTOR 3 5 6*0.24 1
END GEOM
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER.INCLUDES REFL.'
XUL=16.24 YUL=33.44 ZUL=16.0 XLR=33.44 YLR=16.24 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER, INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFL.'
XUL=3.0 YUL=20.2 ZUL=16.0 XLR=20.2 YLR=3.0 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=12.9. INCLUDE REFLECTOR'
XUL=16.24 YUL=12.9 ZUL=80.24 XLR=33.44 YLR=12.9 ZLR=16.24
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=12.9. INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFLECTOR'
XUL=3.0 YUL=12.9 ZUL=67.0 XLR=20.2 YLR=12.9 ZLR=3.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
2x2x2 REFLECTED ARRAY OF CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 TME=0.5 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 301 1.0
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 3 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 4 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 5 4P4.3 2P16.0
MEDIA 1 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 4 1 3 2
MEDIA 0 1 4 3
MEDIA 2 1 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 17.2 0.0 17.2 0.0 64.0 0.0
CUBOID 2 22.20 5.00 22.20 5.00 69.00 5.00
CUBOID 3 27.20 10.00 27.20 10.00 74.00 10.00
CUBOID 4 32.20 15.00 32.20 15.00 79.00 15.00
CUBOID 5 32.44 15.24 32.44 15.24 79.24 15.24
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 4.3 4.3 16.0
MEDIA 3 2 2 1
MEDIA 3 3 3 2
MEDIA 3 4 4 3
MEDIA 3 5 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
END GEOM
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER.INCLUDES REFL.'
XUL=16.24 YUL=33.44 ZUL=16.0 XLR=33.44 YLR=16.24 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER, INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFL.'
XUL=3.0 YUL=20.2 ZUL=16.0 XLR=20.2 YLR=3.0 ZLR=16.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=12.9. INCLUDE REFLECTOR'
XUL=16.24 YUL=12.9 ZUL=80.24 XLR=33.44 YLR=12.9 ZLR=16.24
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=12.9. INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFLECTOR'
XUL=3.0 YUL=12.9 ZUL=67.0 XLR=20.2 YLR=12.9 ZLR=3.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
The ARRAY record specifies the array number and the coordinates of the most negative point of the array to be (0.0,0.0,0.0) and the coordinates of the most positive point to be (17.2,17.2,64.0). Thus the reflected array extends from 15.24 cm to +32.44 cm in X and Y and from 15.24 to +79.24 in Z.
The first color plot for this example is to show an XY slice through the array and reflector at the half height of the bottom layer. A black border is used to verify that the entire reflector has been shown. This is accomplished by arbitrarily setting the plot boundaries 1 cm beyond the reflector boundaries. The coordinates used for this plot are XUL = 16.24 YUL = 33.44 ZUL = 16.0 XLR = 33.44 YLR = 16.24 ZLR = 16.0. The plot data description is shown in Example 8.1.23, and the plot is shown in Fig. 8.1.76.
xy slice at half height of bottom layer. includes refl.
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 1.6240e+01 3.3440e+01
y 3.3440e+01 1.6240e+01
z 1.6000e+01 1.6000e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 7.7625e02 delv= 7.7625e02 lpi= 10.000
The next color plot is the same as the previous plot, except this plot includes only the first 3 cm of the reflector in order to show more detail. The coordinates used for this plot are XUL= 3.0 YUL=20.2 ZUL=16.0 XLR=20.2 YLR= 3.0 ZLR=16.0. This plot data description is given in Example 8.1.24, and the plot is shown in Fig. 8.1.77.
xy slice at half height of bottom layer, include 3 cm of refl.
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 3.0000e+00 2.0200e+01
y 2.0200e+01 3.0000e+00
z 1.6000e+01 1.6000e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 3.6250e02 delv= 3.6250e02 lpi= 10.000
The third color plot for this example is an XZ slice through the center of the front row. An extra 1 cm is included in the coordinates to provide a black border around the plot. The coordinates are: XUL= 16.24 YUL=12.9 ZUL=80.24 XLR=33.44 YLR=12.9 ZLR= 16.24. The resultant plot data and plot are shown in Example 8.1.25 and Fig. 8.1.78. XZ plot for 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 2 reflected array.
xz slice through front row, y=12.9. include reflector
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 1.6240e+01 3.3440e+01
y 1.2900e+01 1.2900e+01
z 8.0240e+01 1.6240e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 0.00000 0.00000
z 1.00000 0.00000
nu= 1242 nv= 640 delu= 7.7625e02 delv= 7.7625e02 lpi= 10.000
The last color plot for this example is the same as the previous one, except only 3 cm of the reflector is included in the plot. The plot data and associated plot are shown in Example 8.1.26 and Fig. 8.1.79.
xz slice through front row, y=12.9. include 3 cm of reflector
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 3.0000e+00 2.0200e+01
y 1.2900e+01 1.2900e+01
z 6.7000e+01 3.0000e+00
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 0.00000 0.00000
z 1.00000 0.00000
nu= 1931 nv= 640 delu= 3.6250e02 delv= 3.6250e02 lpi= 10.000
EXAMPLE 5. A 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 2 REFLECTED ARRAY WITH THE ORIGIN CENTERED IN THE ARRAY
This example is physically identical to Example 4. The difference is in the specification of the origin. The bare array is 17.2 cm wide in X and Y and 64 cm high. The origin (0,0,0) can be placed at the exact center of the array by specifying the most negative point of the array as X = 8.6, Y = 8.6 and Z = 32.0. This is done using the ARRAY description in the geometry block. Because the origin is located at a different position, the coordinates of the plots will also be different. The input data description for this example is given below.
KENO V.a:
=KENOVA
2x2x2 REFLECTED ARRAY OF CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 TME=0.5 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 301 1.0
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 2 1 4P4.3 2P16.0
GLOBAL
UNIT 2
ARRAY 1 1 2*8.6 32.0
REFLECTOR 3 2 6*5.0 3
REFLECTOR 3 5 6*0.24 1
END GEOM
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2 FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER.INCLUDES REFL.'
XUL=24.84 YUL=24.84 ZUL=8.0 XLR=24.84 YLR=24.84 ZLR=8.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER, INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFL.'
XUL=11.6 YUL=11.6 ZUL=8.0 XLR=11.6 YLR=11.6 ZLR=8.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW. Y=4.3 INCLUDE REFLECTOR'
XUL=24.84 YUL=4.3 ZUL=48.24 XLR=24.84 YLR=4.3 ZLR=48.24
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=4.3 INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFLECTOR'
XUL=11.6 YUL=4.3 ZUL=35.0 XLR=11.6 YLR=4.3 ZLR=35.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
2x2x2 REFLECTED ARRAY OF CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS IN CUBOID
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 TME=0.5 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 301 1.0
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 2.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 3 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 4 4P3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 5 4P4.3 2P16.0
MEDIA 1 1
MEDIA 0 1 2 1
MEDIA 4 1 3 2
MEDIA 0 1 4 3
MEDIA 2 1 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
GLOBAL UNIT 2
CUBOID 1 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 32.0 32.0
CUBOID 2 13.6 13.6 13.6 13.6 37.0 37.0
CUBOID 3 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 42.0 42.0
CUBOID 4 23.6 23.6 23.6 23.6 47.0 47.0
CUBOID 5 23.84 23.84 23.84 23.84 47.24 47.24
ARRAY 1 1 PLACE 1 1 1 4.3 4.3 16.0
MEDIA 3 2 2 1
MEDIA 3 3 3 2
MEDIA 3 4 4 3
MEDIA 3 5 5 4
BOUNDARY 5
END GEOM
READ BIAS ID=301 2 5 END BIAS
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=2 NUY=2 NUZ=2I FILL F1 END FILL END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER INCLUDES REFL.'
XUL=24.84 YUL=24.84 ZUL=8.0 XLR=24.84 YLR=24.84 ZLR=8.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=130 NCH=' *=.X' END
TTL='XY SLICE AT HALF HEIGHT OF BOTTOM LAYER, INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFL.'
XUL=11.6 YUL=11.6 ZUL=8.0 XLR=11.6 YLR=11.6 ZLR=8.0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW. Y=4.3 INCLUDE REFLECTOR'
XUL=24.84 YUL=4.3 ZUL=48.24 XLR=24.84 YLR=4.3 ZLR=48.24
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH FRONT ROW, Y=4.3 INCLUDE 3 CM OF REFLECTOR'
XUL=11.6 YUL=4.3 ZUL=35.0 XLR=11.6 YLR=4.3 ZLR=35.0
UAX=1.0 WDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
The first color plot for this example covers exactly the same area as the first plot for Example 4. The plot data and the plot are given in Example 8.1.27 and Fig. 8.1.80, respectively.
xy slice at half height of bottom layer.includes refl.
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 2.4840e+01 2.4840e+01
y 2.4840e+01 2.4840e+01
z 8.0000e+00 8.0000e+00
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 7.7625e02 delv= 7.7625e02 lpi= 10.000
The Example 5 plot data and associated plots for an enlarged XY plot, an XZ plot and an enlarged XZ plot are given in Example 8.1.28 through Fig. 8.1.83.
xy slice at half height of bottom layer, include 3 cm of refl.
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 1.1600e+01 1.1600e+01
y 1.1600e+01 1.1600e+01
z 8.0000e+00 8.0000e+00
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 3.6250e02 delv= 3.6250e02 lpi= 10.000
xz slice through front row. y=4.3 include reflector
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 2.4840e+01 2.4840e+01
y 4.3000e+00 4.3000e+00
z 4.8240e+01 4.8240e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 0.00000 0.00000
z 1.00000 0.00000
nu= 1242 nv= 640 delu= 7.7625e02 delv= 7.7625e02 lpi= 10.000
xz slice through front row, y=4.3 include 3 cm of reflector
mixture map
mixture 0 1 2 3 4
symbol 1 2 3 4
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 1.1600e+01 1.1600e+01
y 4.3000e+00 4.3000e+00
z 3.5000e+01 3.5000e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 0.00000 0.00000
z 1.00000 0.00000
nu= 1931 nv= 640 delu= 3.6250e02 delv= 3.6250e02 lpi= 10.000
EXAMPLE 6. NESTED HOLES.
The nested hole description is provided in Sect. 8.1.4.6.2. Because this example involves a complicated placement of units, it is helpful useful to the user to generate a mixture plot and/or a unit plot for the problem. The resultant mixture plot for this problem is shown in Fig. 8.1.84, and the data description for Example 6 follows.
xy slice at z midpoint. nested holes. unit map
0 unit map
unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
overall system coordinates:
xmin= 0.00000e+00 xmax= 8.00000e+00 ymin= 0.00000e+00 ymax= 8.00000e+00
zmin= 0.00000e+00 zmax= 3.20000e+01
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 1.0000e01 8.1000e+00
y 8.1000e+00 1.0000e01
z 1.6000e+01 1.6000e+01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 640 nv= 640 delu= 1.2813e02 delv= 1.2813e02 lpi= 10.000
KENO V.a:
=KENOVA
NESTED HOLES SAMPLE
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 1 0.1 2P15.0
UNIT 2
CUBOID 2 1 2P0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0
UNIT 3
CUBOID 2 1 2P0.05 2P0.1 2P15.0
UNIT 4
CYLINDER 1 1 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 3 1 0.5 2P15.0
HOLE 1 0.0 0.4 0.0
HOLE 1 0.4 0.0 0.0
HOLE 1 0.0 0.4 0.0
HOLE 1 0.4 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.2 0.0 0.0
HOLE 2 0.2 0.0 0.0
HOLE 3 0.0 0.2 0.0
HOLE 3 0.0 0.2 0.0
UNIT 5
CYLINDER 1 1 0.5 2P15.0
UNIT 6
CYLINDER 2 1 0.2 2P15.0
UNIT 7
CYLINDER 2 1 0.2 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 1.3 2P15.0
HOLE 5 0.707107 2*0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 4 0.0 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 5 0.707107 0.0 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 4 0.0 0.707107 0.0
HOLE 6 0.707107 0.707107 0.0
CYLINDER 4 1 1.4 2P15.0
UNIT 8
CYLINDER 2 1 0.6 2P15.0
UNIT 9
CYLINDER 2 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 0 1 3.6 2P15.0
HOLE 7 2.0 0.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2*2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 2.0 2*0.0
HOLE 8 2*2.0 0.0
HOLE 7 0.0 2.0 0.0
HOLE 8 2P2.0 0.0
CYLINDER 4 1 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 0 1 4P4.0 2P16.0
END GEOM
READ ARRAY ARA=1 NUX=1 NUY=1 NUZ=1 FILL 9 END ARRAY
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. NESTED HOLES'
XUL=0.1 YUL=8.1 ZUL=16.0 XLR=8.1 YLR=0.1 ZLR=16
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. NESTED HOLES. UNIT MAP'
PIC=UNIT END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
KENOVI:
=KENOVI
NESTED HOLES SAMPLE
READ PARAM RUN=NO LIB=41 TME=0.5 END PARAM
READ MIXT SCT=1 MIX=1 92500 4.70482 MIX=2 200 1.0 MIX=3 502 0.1
MIX=4 200 1.0
END MIXT
READ GEOM
UNIT 1
CYLINDER 1 0.1 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.4
CYLINDER 3 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.4
CYLINDER 4 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.4
CYLINDER 5 0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.4
CUBOID 6 2P0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.2
CUBOID 7 2P0.1 2P0.05 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.2
CUBOID 8 2P0.05 2P0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.2
CUBOID 9 2P0.05 2P0.1 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.2
CYLINDER 10 0.5 2P15.0
MEDIA 1 1 1 6 7 8 9
MEDIA 1 1 2 8
MEDIA 1 1 3 7
MEDIA 1 1 4 9
MEDIA 1 1 5 6
MEDIA 2 1 6 1 5
MEDIA 2 1 7 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 8 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 9 1 4
MEDIA 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
BOUNDARY 10
UNIT 2
CYLINDER 1 0.2 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 3 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 4 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 5 0.2 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107 Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 6 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107
CYLINDER 7 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=0.707107
CYLINDER 8 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 9 0.5 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
CYLINDER 10 1.3 2P15.0
CYLINDER 11 1.4 2P15.0
MEDIA 2 1 1
MEDIA 2 1 2
MEDIA 2 1 3
MEDIA 2 1 4
MEDIA 2 1 5
MEDIA 1 1 6 8 9
MEDIA 1 1 7 8 9
HOLE 1 8 3 6 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
HOLE 1 9 6 7 ORIGIN Y=0.707107
MEDIA 0 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
MEDIA 4 1 11 10
BOUNDARY 11
GLOBAL UNIT 3
CYLINDER 1 0.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 2 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 3 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 4 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 5 0.6 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0 Y=2.0
CYLINDER 6 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0
CYLINDER 7 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=2.0
CYLINDER 8 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN X=2.0
CYLINDER 9 1.4 2P15.0 ORIGIN Y=2.0
CYLINDER 10 3.6 2P15.0
CYLINDER 11 3.8 2P15.0
CUBOID 12 4P4.0 2P16.0
MEDIA 2 1 1 6 7 8 9
MEDIA 2 1 2 6 7
MEDIA 2 1 3 7 8
MEDIA 2 1 4 8 9
MEDIA 2 1 5 9 6
HOLE 2 6 1 5 2 ORIGIN X=2
HOLE 2 7 1 2 3 ORIGIN Y=2
HOLE 2 8 1 3 4 ORIGIN X=2
HOLE 2 9 1 4 5 ORIGIN Y=2
MEDIA 0 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
MEDIA 4 1 11 10
MEDIA 0 1 12 11
BOUNDARY 12
END GEOM
READ PLOT
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. NESTED HOLES'
XUL=4.1 YUL=4.1 ZUL=0.0 XLR=4.1 YLR=4.1 ZLR=0
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=640 END
TTL='XY SLICE AT Z MIDPOINT. NESTED HOLES, UNIT MAP.'
PIC=UNIT END
END PLOT
END DATA
END
.he plot data description for the UNIT plot of nested holes is shown in Example 8.1.31. The UNIT plot is shown in Fig. 8.1.85. The user can reference this map to verify the correct placement of the UNITs. Note that the UNIT map plots the UNITs present at the deepest nesting level for the 2D slice. It does not show any detail within a UNIT. The apparent detail within UNIT 7 includes UNITs 1–6, which were placed there via the hole option. In the legend of the plot, the material number actually refers to the UNIT number.
EXAMPLE 7. LARGE STORAGE ARRAY.
The storage array described Example 18 in Sect. 8.1.4.6.3 and Fig. 8.1.33 is such a sparse array that the mixture map had to be very large in order to show the detail of the shelves and uranium buttons. The mixture maps for this configuration were not presented in Sect. 8.1.4.6.3, but the data description was listed so the user can generate them. It may be useful to generate a UNIT map for this kind of problem. The input data for generating unit maps for this storage array is given below.
READ PLOT PIC=UNIT
TTL='XZ SLICE THROUGH STORAGE ARRAY ROOM AT Y=30.48 WITH Z ACROSS AND X DOWN'
XUL=624.84 YUL=30.48 ZUL=45.72 XLR=30.48 YLR=30.48 ZLR=381.0
WAX=1.0 UDN=1.0 NAX=320 END
TTL='XY SLICE THROUGH STORAGE ARRAY ROOM AT Z=0.3175 WITH X ACROSS AND Y DOWN'
XUL=30.48 YUL=1341.1 ZUL=0.3175 XLR=624.84 YLR=30.48 ZLR=0.3175
UAX=1.0 VDN=1.0 NAX=320 END
END PLOT
The plot data and UNIT map for an XZ slice through the array at Y=30.48 cm is given in Example 8.1.32 and Fig. 8.1.86. The Z direction, which extends from 45.72 cm to 381.0 cm, is plotted in 320 pixels across the plot. This UNIT map was created with Z across the plot and X down the plot.
xz slice through storage array room at y=30.48 with z across and x down
unit map
unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 6.2484e+02 3.0480e+01
y 3.0480e+01 3.0480e+01
z 4.5720e+01 3.8100e+02
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 1.00000 0.00000
y 0.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 1.00000
nu= 491 nv= 320 delu= 1.3335e+00 delv= 1.3335e+00 lpi= 10.000
The plot data and UNIT map for an XY slice through the shelf are given in Example 8.1.33 and Fig. 8.1.87. This UNIT map was created with X across the plot and Y down the plot. This shows five rows of shelves in the X direction.
xy slice through storage array room at z=0.3175 with x across and y down
unit map
unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
upper left lower right
coordinates coordinates
x 3.0480e+01 6.2484e+02
y 1.3411e+03 3.0480e+01
z 3.1750e01 3.1750e01
u axis v axis
(down) (across)
x 0.00000 1.00000
y 1.00000 0.00000
z 0.00000 0.00000
nu= 669 nv= 320 delu= 2.0479e+00 delv= 2.0479e+00 lpi= 10.000
8.1.4.11. KENO Multiple Mesh and Meshbased Quantity Specifications
KENO constructs a grid object and stores several mesh definitions in this object. The following mesh definitions are supported by KENO:
Default mesh grid (grid
ID
=10001):
KENO generates a 5 \(\times\) 5 \(\times\) 5 Cartesian mesh grid which overlays the entire geometry. This mesh is used only for fission source convergence diagnostics if the user does not specify any spatial mesh for this quantity.
Note
Currently, users cannot enter grid ID
s greater than 9999.
A cubic mesh grid (grid
ID
= 20001):
KENO generates a cubic mesh with the mesh size specified by MSH
parameter,
which is introduced in Table 8.1.1. This mesh definition can be used
by all meshbased quantities except the Shannon Entropy tallies used for
fission source convergence diagnostics.
Mesh with
grid geometry data
input (gridID
= NUMBER):
The user can specify either a mesh with a single grid data
input block or
multiple meshes by repeating the grid data
input block with different mesh
definitions. Note that the entire block, including READ GRID
and
END GRID
, must be repeated each time; this behavior is different
from all other blocks of KENO input.
After processing all grid data and constructing all grid meshes, KENO prints the specification of each mesh grid in the Grid Definitions output edit; see Sect. 8.1.5.19 for details.
Before starting the transport process, KENO tries to match the IDs specified in
the parameter block with the keywords SCD
, MFX
, CDS
, CGD
,
FIS
, and GFX
(See Sect. 8.1.3.3) to the grid ID
in each
grid definition. Each meshbased quantity requested
by the user is associated with a grid if the requested grid ID
exists.
Note
Parameters CDS
, CGD
, FIS
, GFX
, and MFX
with
YES entry always require a mesh defined by either parameter MSH
or grid data
input.
Parameters CDS
, CGD
, FIS
, GFX
, and MFX
with
YES entry always use the mesh defined by the first grid data
input
if there are multiple meshes defined by both MSH
and grid data
input block(s).
The following examples demonstrate the mesh features in KENO:
 Example: Source Convergence Diagnostics with Default Mesh
KENO always generates a default mesh for source convergence diagnostics if the user does not specify any mesh for this quantity. The following example (only KENOVI version is shown) with some updates in
parameter data
andgrid data
input blocks will be used in all examples in this section to summarize several mesh definition scenarios with several meshbased quantity requests.In this sample problem, a bounding box is defined to enclose the entire geometry with xmin=13.74, xmax=13.74, ymin=13.74, ymax=13.74, zmin=13.01, and zmax=13.01. KENO uses this bounding box and creates a 5 \(\times\) 5 \(\times\) 5 grid for source convergence diagnostics.
KENOVI:
=kenovi
mesh test  scd with default mesh (5x5x5), scd=yes (default)
READ PARAMETER
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000
END PARAMETER
read mixt
mix=1
92234 4.82716E04 92235 4.47972E02
92236 9.57234E05 92238 2.65768E03
end mixt
read geometry
unit 1
com='single 2c8 unit centered'
cylinder 10 5.748 5.3825 5.3825
cuboid 20 4p6.87 2p6.505
media 1 1 10 vol=8938.968624
media 0 1 20 10 vol=10710.044784
boundary 20
global unit 2
cuboid 10 4p13.74 2p13.01
com='2x2x2 2c8 array'
array 1 +10 place 1 1 1 2r6.87 6.505
boundary 10
end geometry
read array
ara=1 nux=2 nuy=2 nuz=2 fill f1 end fill
end array
end data
end
In the output, KENO notifies users about the default mesh usage for source convergence diagnostics with the message k6316. The default grid definition with some details is shown in Example 8.1.34.
Fig. 8.1.88 shows the Fulcrum visualized Shannon Entropy by generations plot for this sample problem.
***** warning ***** keno message number k6316 follows:
No mesh provided for Source Convergence Diagnostics (SCD). Continue with default mesh.
...
********************************************************************************************************************
*** ***
*** grid definitions ***
*** ***
*** Only a single grid geometry is either specified or internally setup for this problem ***
*** ***
********************************************************************************************************************
**** Grid geometries utilized in this problem ****
Grid Geometry: 10001
title: Default 5 x 5 x 5 Cartesian mesh which overlays the entire geometry
Plane Summary
x: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 5 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 125
xplanes yplanes zplanes
   
1 1.37400137400000E+01 1.37400137400000E+01 1.30100130100000E+01
2 8.24400824399998E+00 8.24400824399998E+00 7.80600780599998E+00
3 2.74800274799999E+00 2.74800274799999E+00 2.60200260199999E+00
4 2.74800274799999E+00 2.74800274799999E+00 2.60200260199999E+00
5 8.24400824399998E+00 8.24400824399998E+00 7.80600780599998E+00
6 1.37400137400000E+01 1.37400137400000E+01 1.30100130100000E+01
   
 Example: Source Convergence Diagnostics with Userdefined Mesh.
The user can request the accumulation of the fission source on a different grid rather than the default grid for source convergence diagnostics. In this example, the sample problem specified in previous example is modified for this purpose. A new 6 \(\times\) 6 \(\times\) 6 grid is defined over the entire geometry in a grid geometry data input with grid ID 12, and source convergence diagnostics are requested by setting SCD parameter to 12 in the parameter block that matches the NUMBER specification in the grid geometry data input.
=kenovi
mesh test  scd with userdefined grid
READ PARAMETERS
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000 SCD=12
END PARAMETERS
...
READ GRID
12
TITLE "test scd with this mesh"
NUMXCELLS=6 NUMYCELLS=6 NUMZCELLS=6
XMIN=13.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=13.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=13.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
...
Note
Starting from this example, only a summary of Grid Definiton output edit will be presented for the remaining examples.
A Userdefined grid is printed in Grid Definitons output edit, and Example 8.1.35 presents only a summary of this output section. Fig. 8.1.89 shows the variation of Shannon Entropy (tallied on userdefined mesh) over generations for the same problem given in the previous example.
...
Grid Geometry: 12
title: test scd with this mesh
Plane Summary
x: 6 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 6 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 6 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 216
...
 Example: Source Convergence Diagnostics with NonExisting Mesh.
This example demonstrates the code behavior if there is a mismatch between the NUMBER entry in grid geometry data input and the SCD parameter in the parameter data. The sample input in the first example was modified as (a) a single mesh is defined with grid ID = 12, and (b) source convergence diagnostics is intended to use a grid with grid ID = 99, which does not exist.
=kenovi
mesh test  scd with nonexisting grid id
READ PARAMETERS
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000 SCD=99
END PARAMETERS
...
READ GRID
12
TITLE "test scd with this mesh"
NUMXCELLS=6 NUMYCELLS=6 NUMZCELLS=6
XMIN=13.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=13.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=13.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
...
In this example, calculation is stopped with an error message since the requested grid definition for source convergence diagnostics does not exist in the input.
...
***** error ***** keno message number k6315 follows:
Mesh < 99 > specified for Shannon entropy tally and source convergence diagnostics(SCD) is not found in input.
...
***** error ***** keno message number k6100 follows:
this problem will not be run because errors were encountered in the input data.
...
 Example: Fission Rate Mesh Tally with a Cubic Mesh Definition with MSH Parameter.
In this example, the sample problem described in the first example was modified as (a) a cubic mesh defined with the MSH parameter, and (b) fission rate mesh tally is requested on this cubic mesh. In this case, a default mesh with grid ID=10001 is constructed and used only for source convergence diagnostics. The cubic mesh with grid ID=20001 is also constructed with the length of one side as equals to 2.748 cm and is used for the fission rate mesh tally.
=kenovi
mesh test  fis with uniform mesh defined by MSH
READ PARAMETERS
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000 FIS=yes MSH=2.748
END PARAMETERS
...
The output prints the details of mesh grid entries in Grid Definitions edit, as shown in Example 8.1.36. For this sample problem, the cubic mesh grid is constructed in a box that is larger than the bounding box around the global unit (+x=13.74, x=13.74, +y=13.74, y=13.74, +z=13.01 and z=13.01). The extents of the global boundary in each dimension are not equal; therefore, KENO tries to adjust the box size to place the cubic meshes properly inside this box. A grid mesh perfectly overlapping the problem geometry can be defined only by the grid data input rather than using the MSH parameter.
**** Grid geometries utilized in this problem ****
Grid Geometry: 20001
title: Cubic mesh grid automatically generated with mesh_size = 2.74799991
Plane Summary
x: 12 cells from 1.64880E+01 to 1.64880E+01
y: 12 cells from 1.64880E+01 to 1.64880E+01
z: 12 cells from 1.64880E+01 to 1.64880E+01
Total number of cells: 1728
xplanes yplanes zplanes
   
1 1.64879994392395E+01 1.64879994392395E+01 1.64879994392395E+01
2 1.37399995326996E+01 1.37399995326996E+01 1.37399995326996E+01
...
Grid Geometry: 10001
title: Default 5 x 5 x 5 Cartesian mesh which overlays the entire geometry
Plane Summary
x: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 5 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 125
...
Specifications of fission rate mesh tally in Mesh Tallies output edit are listed in Example 8.1.37. Fission rate mesh tally is saved in a 3dmap file named example4.fission_density.3dmap, and results from this file overlayed on the geometry are shown in Fig. 8.1.90.
**** mesh tallies ****
1 mesh tallies computed for this problem
mesh tally (requested with parameter fis)
response : fission_density
grid id : 20001
energy id : Default
memory allocated : 6.645 MB
output : example4.fission_density.3dmap
energy boundaries:
group energy (eV)
 
1 2.00000E+07
2 1.73300E+07
3 1.56800E+07
. .
250 7.50000E04
251 5.00000E04
252 1.00000E04
1.00000E05
 
grid summary:
x: 12 cells from 1.64880E+01 to 1.64880E+01
y: 12 cells from 1.64880E+01 to 1.64880E+01
z: 12 cells from 1.64880E+01 to 1.64880E+01
Total number of cells: 1728
 Example: Fission Rate Mesh Tally with a NUMBER.
In this example, problem given in the first example was modified to request a fission rate mesh tally calculation over a mesh defined in the grid geometry data input. A default mesh with grid ID=10001 is constructed and used for the source convergence diagnostics. The user defined mesh (grid ID=17) is used for the fission rate mesh tally.
=kenovi
mesh test  fis with a mesh defined by grid data block
READ PARAMETERS
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000 FIS=17
END PARAMETERS
...
READ GRID
17
TITLE "test fis with this mesh"
NUMXCELLS=20 NUMYCELLS=20 NUMZCELLS=6
XMIN=13.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=13.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=13.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
...
A summary of the mesh grids utilized in this sample problem is printed in Grid Definitions, as shown in Example 8.1.38.
**** Grid geometries utilized in this problem ****
Grid Geometry: 17
title: test fis with this mesh
Plane Summary
x: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 6 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 2400
...
Grid Geometry: 10001
title: Default 5 x 5 x 5 Cartesian mesh which overlays the entire geometry
Plane Summary
x: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 5 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 125
Example 8.1.39 is a snapshot of the Mesh Tallies output edit, which summarizes the specification of this mesh quantity. The fission rate mesh tally is saved in a 3dmap file named example5.fission_density.3dmap. Tally results from this file overlayed over the geometry are shown in Fig. 8.1.91.
**** mesh tallies ****
1 mesh tallies computed for this problem
mesh tally (requested with parameter fis)
response : fission_density
grid id : 17
energy id : Default
memory allocated : 9.229 MB
output : example5.fission_density.3dmap
energy boundaries:
group energy (eV)
 
1 2.00000E+07
2 1.73300E+07
3 1.56800E+07
. .
250 7.50000E04
251 5.00000E04
252 1.00000E04
1.00000E05
 
grid summary:
x: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 6 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 2400
 Example: Fission Rate Mesh Tally with Multiple Mesh Definitions.
In this example, the sample input from the previous example is used with the oldstyle definition so that fission rate mesh tally is requested by setting the FIS parameter to YES.
Additional mesh grids were added to the sample input to demonstrate how KENO assigns a mesh grid to a meshbased quantity when the value of mesh quantity has been entered as YES and multiple mesh grids have already been defined: (a) two mesh grids with grid IDs 118 and 113 are defined in grid geometry data inputs, and (b) another mesh grid is also defined with the MSH parameter.
KENO uses the default mesh grid (grid ID=10001) for the source convergence diagnostics, using the mesh with grid ID= 118 from the grid data container for the fission rate mesh tally.
=kenovi
mesh test  fis=yes with multiple mesh defined by grid data block
READ PARAMETERS
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000 MSH=2.5 FIS=yes
END PARAMETERS
...
READ GRID
118
TITLE "test fis with this mesh partially covering the geometry"
NUMXCELLS=20 NUMYCELLS=20 NUMZCELLS=18
XMIN=1.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=1.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=1.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
READ GRID
113
TITLE "mesh will not be used"
NUMXCELLS=3 NUMYCELLS=3 NUMZCELLS=3
XMIN=1.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=1.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=1.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
READ GRID
17
TITLE "test fis with this mesh"
NUMXCELLS=20 NUMYCELLS=20 NUMZCELLS=6
XMIN=13.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=13.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=13.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
...
A summary of Grid Definitions output edit is given in Example 8.1.40. Note that KENO does not print anything for the cubic mesh (requested by setting MSH=2.5, grid ID= 20001) because this mesh was not constructed. KENO ignores the mesh definition request done with the MSH parameter if any mesh grid is defined by grid data input.
**** Grid geometries utilized in this problem ****
Grid Geometry: 118
title: test fis with this mesh partially covering the geometry
Plane Summary
x: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
z: 18 cells from 1.01001E+00 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 7200
...
Grid Geometry: 113
title: mesh will not be used
Plane Summary
x: 3 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
y: 3 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
z: 3 cells from 1.01001E+00 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 27
...
Grid Geometry: 17
title: test fis with this mesh
Plane Summary
x: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 6 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 2400
...
Grid Geometry: 10001
title: Default 5 x 5 x 5 Cartesian mesh which overlays the entire geometry
Plane Summary
x: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 5 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 5 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 125
...
KENO assigns the first grid entry from the grid data container to any mesh quantity whose value is entered as YES in the parameter data input. Each grid defined in the grid data blocks is stored in the grid data container unit in the order in which it is processed.
In this example, the grid entry 118, which is processed and stored first, is assigned to the fission rate mesh tally calculation. Mesh Tallies output edit shown in Example 8.1.41 reflects this grid assignment to the fission ate mesh tally.
**** mesh tallies ****
1 mesh tallies computed for this problem
mesh tally (requested with parameter fis)
response : fission_density
grid id : 118
energy id : Default
memory allocated : 27.686 MB
output : example6.fission_density.3dmap
energy boundaries:
group energy (eV)
 
1 2.00000E+07
2 1.73300E+07
3 1.56800E+07
. .
250 7.50000E04
251 5.00000E04
252 1.00000E04
1.00000E05
 
grid summary:
x: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
z: 18 cells from 1.01001E+00 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 7200
...
Fig. 8.1.92 illustrates the fission rate mesh tally overlayed on the geometry. Note that the mesh used in the fission rate mesh tally calculation does not cover the entire geometry, and this is not a requirement for this tally.
Note
The fission rate mesh tally capability as well as fission source and grid flux tallies (averaged over mesh volumes) do not require that the mesh grid used in the calculation cover the entire geometry.
However, the mesh flux capability (calculated over the volume of materials in each mesh voxel) activated by the MFX parameter always requires that the mesh grid used in its calculations cover the entire geometry.
 Example: Mesh Flux Tally with Multiple Mesh Definitions.
In this example, the sample problem described in previous example is modified to request a mesh flux calculation (MFX) on a mesh grid which partly covers the problem geometry. The mesh volume calculation required by the mesh flux calculation is already requested by adding a volume block to the input.
Note
Calculation of mesh fluxes in all regions enclosed by a mesh voxel requires the volume of each region in this mesh voxel. KENO V.a automatically activates stochastic volume calculation with RANDOM volume estimate for such a case. The user can override the parameters in the volume data input block. However, users cannot change the volume calculation method from RANDOM volume estimate to TRACE volume estimate.
In the KENOVI case, it is the user’s responsibility to add a volume data input block to activate the stochastic mesh volume calculation. Like KENO V.a, KENOVI only allows RANDOM volume estimate for mesh volume calculation. See Sect. 8.1.3.13 and Sect. 8.1.5.17 for more details.
After these updates, KENO with this sample problem uses the default mesh (grid ID=10001) for the source convergence diagnostics, and the userdefined mesh with grid ID=118 for accumulating the mesh fluxes. Unlike the fission rate mesh tally case discussed in the previous example, execution is terminated for this scenario since the mesh flux capability requested with MFX parameter requires a mesh grid covering the entire geometry.
=kenovi
mesh test  mfx=yes with a grid mesh covering the part of the geometry
READ PARAMETERS
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000 MFX=yes
END PARAMETERS
...
READ GRID
118
TITLE "test fis with this mesh partially covering the geometry"
NUMXCELLS=20 NUMYCELLS=20 NUMZCELLS=18
XMIN=1.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=1.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=1.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
READ GRID
113
TITLE "mesh will not be used"
NUMXCELLS=3 NUMYCELLS=3 NUMZCELLS=3
XMIN=1.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=1.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=1.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
READ GRID
17
TITLE "test fis with this mesh"
NUMXCELLS=20 NUMYCELLS=20 NUMZCELLS=6
XMIN=13.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=13.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=13.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
...
READ VOLUME
TYPE=RANDOM BATCHES=100 POINTS=1000
XP=+13.01 XM=13.01
YP=+13.74 YM=13.74
ZP=+13.74 ZM=13.74
END VOLUME
...
The code is stopped with the following error message in the output:
...
***** warning ***** keno message number k6316 follows:
No mesh provided for Source Convergence Diagnostics (SCD). Continue with default mesh.
1 mesh test  fis with multiple grid data input
volumes for those units utilized in this problem
Mesh Volume Sampling Parameters

The number of points per batch was specified as 1000
This gives a sampling density of 5.08931E02 points per cc per batch.
The number of batches is 100
***** error ***** keno message number k6305 follows:
Mesh fluxes have been specified, but the mesh does not completely cover the geometry.
The point x= 3.65030E+00 y= 1.90999E+00 z= 1.02504E+01 lies outside the mesh.
The problem will not be run. Fix the mesh and resubmit the case.
...
***** error ***** keno message number k6100 follows:
this problem will not be run because errors were encountered in the input data.
stop code 129
execution terminated due to errors. completion code 129. cpu time used 3.15388 seconds
***Error: Application failed  see messages file for details.
...
 Example: Multiple Mesh Quantity with Multiple Mesh Definitions.
This example demonstrates the multiple mesh definition for multiple meshbased quantities. Our sample problem from a previous example is modified as (a) the source convergence diagnostics and mesh fluxes are requested with (grid ID= 17), (b) grid fluxes are requested with (grid ID= 113), and (c) fission rate mesh tally is requested with YES.
The first grid entry (grid ID=118) in grid geometry data input is assigned to the fission rate mesh tally.
=kenovi
mesh test  test mfx, gfx, and fis together
READ PARAMETERS
CEP=ce_v7.1_endf NPG=10000 MFX=17 scd=17 gfx=113 fis=yes pms=yes
END PARAMETERS
...
READ GRID
118
TITLE "test fis with this mesh partially covering the geometry"
NUMXCELLS=20 NUMYCELLS=20 NUMZCELLS=18
XMIN=1.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=1.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=1.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
READ GRID
113
TITLE "mesh will not be used"
NUMXCELLS=3 NUMYCELLS=3 NUMZCELLS=3
XMIN=1.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=1.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=1.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
READ GRID
17
TITLE "test fis with this mesh"
NUMXCELLS=20 NUMYCELLS=20 NUMZCELLS=6
XMIN=13.74 XMAX=13.74
YMIN=13.74 YMAX=13.74
ZMIN=13.01 ZMAX=13.01
END GRID
...
READ VOLUME
TYPE=RANDOM BATCHES=100 POINTS=1000
XP=+13.01 XM=13.01
YP=+13.74 YM=13.74
ZP=+13.74 ZM=13.74
END VOLUME
...
All three userdefined mesh grids and default mesh grids constructed by KENO are printed in the Grid Definitions output edit as shown in Example 8.1.42. In this output edit, a summary of the volume calculation results performed on the mesh grid 17 is also printed as part of the grid geometry 17 output edit. Further details on the mesh volume calculation can be seen in the volume information edit in the output. All mesh volumes can be printed by setting PMV=YES in the parameter data input (see Table 8.1.1).
**** Grid geometries utilized in this problem ****
Grid Geometry: 118
title: test fis with this mesh partially covering the geometry
Plane Summary
x: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
z: 18 cells from 1.01001E+00 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 7200
...
Grid Geometry: 113
title: mesh will not be used
Plane Summary
x: 3 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
y: 3 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
z: 3 cells from 1.01001E+00 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 27
...
Grid Geometry: 17
title: test fis with this mesh
Plane Summary
x: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.37400E+01 to 1.37400E+01
z: 6 cells from 1.30100E+01 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 2400
xplanes yplanes zplanes
   
1 1.37400137400000E+01 1.37400137400000E+01 1.30100130100000E+01
2 1.23660000000000E+01 1.23660000000000E+01 8.67333333333333E+00
...
20 1.23660000000000E+01 1.23660000000000E+01
21 1.37400137400000E+01 1.37400137400000E+01
   
...
Region volumes in each mesh voxel have been calculated.
Total number of volume elements : 7468
Number of nonzero volume elements: 3734
Mesh/region pairs indexed together to speed up mesh flux scoring.
KENO prints the summary of the specifications of the mesh quantities computed in Mesh tallies output edit as shown in Example 8.1.43. The code saves the fission rate mesh tally and grid fluxes in two separate 3dmap files named example8.fission_density.3dmap and example8.flux.3dmap, respectively. Mesh fluxes are also saved in an ASCII file since the PMS parameter is set to YES. Fig. 8.1.93 presents the fission rate mesh tally, grid fluxes, and Shannon entropy computed on the meshes defined in grid geometry data input.
...
**** mesh tallies ****
2 mesh tallies computed for this problem
mesh tally (requested with parameter gfx)
response : flux
grid id : 113
energy id : Default
memory allocated : 0.104 MB
output : example8.flux.3dmap
energy boundaries:
group energy (eV)
 
1 2.00000E+07
2 1.73300E+07
3 1.56800E+07
. .
250 7.50000E04
251 5.00000E04
252 1.00000E04
1.00000E05
 
grid summary:
x: 3 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
y: 3 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
z: 3 cells from 1.01001E+00 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 27
mesh tally (requested with parameter fis)
response : fission_density
grid id : 118
energy id : Default
memory allocated : 27.686 MB
output : example8.fission_density.3dmap
energy boundaries:
group energy (eV)
 
1 2.00000E+07
2 1.73300E+07
3 1.56800E+07
. .
250 7.50000E04
251 5.00000E04
252 1.00000E04
1.00000E05
 
grid summary:
x: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
y: 20 cells from 1.74001E+00 to 1.37400E+01
z: 18 cells from 1.01001E+00 to 1.30100E+01
Total number of cells: 7200
...
8.1.4.12. Random sequence
The randomnumber package used by KENO always starts with the same seed and thus always reproduces the same sequence of random numbers. Any random number except the one printed as the starting random number in the parameter table can be used to activate a different random sequence. The user can rerun a problem with a different random sequence by simply entering a hexadecimal random number other than the starting random number in the parameter data. For example, by entering RND=A10C1893E6D5 in the parameter data, the problem will be run with a different random sequence.
8.1.4.13. Matrix keffective
Matrix keffective calculations provide an alternative method of calculating the keffective of the system. Cofactor keffectives and source vectors are additional information that can be provided when the matrix keffective is calculated. The necessary source and fission weight data are collected during the neutron tracking procedure. This information is converted to a FISSION PRODUCTION MATRIX, which is the number of next generation neutrons produced at J by a neutron born at I. The principal eigenvalue of the fission probability matrix is the matrix keffective. KENO offers four alternatives when calculating matrix keffective as discussed below:
(1) If MKP
=YES is specified in the parameter data, the fission
production matrix is collected by array position or position index in
the GLOBAL ARRAY. The position index is used to reference a given
location in a 3D lattice. For a 2 \(\times\) 2 \(\times\) 2 array, there are nine unique
position indices as shown below. Position zero contains everything
outside the GLOBAL ARRAY.
POSITION 

X 
Y 
Z 

0 
0 
0 
0 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
4 
2 
2 
1 
5 
1 
1 
2 
6 
2 
1 
2 
7 
1 
2 
2 
8 
2 
2 
2 
The fission production matrix is the number of next generation neutrons produced at index J by a neutron born at index I. This matrix is used to calculate the matrix keffective, cofactor keffectives and the source vector by position index. Because the size of the fission probability matrix is the square of the array size (for a 4 \(\times\) 4 \(\times\) 4 array there are 4,096 entries), it can use vast amounts of computer memory.
(2) If MKU
=YES is specified in the parameter data, the fission
production matrix is collected by UNIT
. It is the number of next
generation neutrons produced in UNIT
J by a neutron born in
UNIT
I. This matrix is used to calculate the matrix keffective,
cofactor keffectives and source vector by UNIT
.
(3) If MKH
=YES is specified in the parameter data, the fission
production matrix is collected by the HOLE
number. Matrix
information can be collected at either the highest HOLE
nesting
level (first level of nesting) or the deepest HOLE
nesting level.
HHL
=YES specifies that the matrix information will be collected at
the first nesting level. By default, the matrix information is collected
at the deepest nesting level. The fission production matrix is the
number of next generation neutrons produced in HOLE
J by a neutron
born in HOLE
I. This matrix is used to calculate the matrix
keffective, cofactor keffectives and the source vector by HOLE
.
(4) If MKA
=YES is specified in the parameter data, the fission
production matrix is collected by ARRAY
number. It can be collected
at the highest ARRAY
level (first level of nesting) or at the
deepest ARRAY
level. HAL
=YES specifies that the matrix
information will be collected at the first nesting level. By default,
the matrix information is collected at the deepest nesting level. The
fission production matrix is the number of next generation neutrons
produced in ARRAY
J by a neutron born in ARRAY
I. This matrix is
used to calculate the matrix keffective, cofactor keffectives and the
source vector by ARRAY
.
The user can simultaneously implement all methods of calculating the
matrix keffective. The results are labeled in the printout. Matrix
keffectives cannot be calculated for a single unit problem. If the user
wishes to do so, the geometry description must have a cube or cuboid as
its outer region, and the problem description should include READ
ARRAY END ARRAY
. These two actions convert the single unit problem
into a 1 \(\times\) 1 \(\times\) 1 array.
A cofactor keffective is the eigenvalue of the fission production
matrix reduced by the row and column that references the specified
UNIT
or position index. The difference between the keffective for
the system and the cofactor keffective for a UNIT
or position index
is an indication of the in situ keffective of that UNIT
or the
contribution that UNIT
makes to the keffective of the system. The
cofactor keffective of a UNIT
devoid of fissile material should
approximate the keffective of the system.
8.1.4.14. Deviations
When a deviation is calculated by KENO, it is the standard deviation of the mean. This assumes a large sample having a normal distribution. KENO calculates the real variance using an iterative approach and lag covariance data between generations as follows [Dem99a, UMN97]
The sample variance and covariance estimates are calculated.
The apparent variance is set equal to the sample variance and the apparent covariance is set equal to the sample covariance.
The real covariance is set equal to the apparent covariance and the real variance is calculated.
Using the real variance and apparent covariance calculate the real covariance.
The real variance is recalculated.
Steps 4 and 5 are repeated until the real variance converges within a preset tolerance.
The covariance estimates are only calculated for the previous 20 generations. A maximum of 50 iterations are allowed for the real variance to converge.
8.1.4.15. Generation time and lifetime
The generation time and lifetime calculations use the average velocity. The validity of these calculations is determined by how accurately the average velocity represents the spectrum over the range of the energy group. The lifetime and generation time calculated by KENO are not kinetics parameters. The lifetime is the average life span of a neutron (in seconds) from the time it is born until it is absorbed or leaks from the system. The generation time is the average time (in seconds) between successive neutron generations.
8.1.4.16. Energy of the Average Lethargy of Fission
The energy of the average lethargy of neutrons causing fission (EALF) is a parameter calculated in KENO to characterize the neutron energy spectrum or fastness of a system. The EALF is given in units of eV in the KENO output. An EALF value that is high (> 100 keV) indicates that most fissions in the system are being caused by fast neutrons, and an EALF value that is low (< 1 eV) indicates that most fissions are induced by thermal neutrons.
The EALF is calculated by determining the lethargy, \(u\), a measure of how much neutron energy changes from its initial or birth energy:
where \(E\) is the energy of the neutron colliding with a nucleus and \(E_{0}\) is the maximum possible energy of fission neutrons (assumed in KENO to be 10 MeV). The average lethargy of all fission events is calculated by weighting the lethargy for each collision by the probability that the collision will create a fission event, and averaging this quantity. Using a logscale parameter like lethargy to represent the fastness of systems is more convenient than directly averaging the energy of neutrons causing fission both because of the wide range of neutrons in a problem (potentially more than seven orders of magnitude), and because fast neutrons that are slowing down lose about the same fraction of their energy during each collision.
Equation Eq. (8.1.2) is then applied again to transform the average lethargy of neutrons causing fission into a neutron energy that corresponds to the average lethargy of neutrons causing fission (this is the EALF); this transformation back to units of energy is done because energy has a much more intuitive meaning than units of lethargy.
8.1.5. Description of Output
This section contains a brief description and explanation of the KENO output. Portions of the printout will not be printed for every problem. Some printout is optional, as noted in this section. This section provides representative samples of the output format. The actual data contained in this section are not necessarily consistent with results computed by the current version of KENO.
KENO offers an HTML output format including a series of files that can be viewed in a standard web browser. The HTML formatted output offers interactive output that is easy to read and navigate. Many of the tables of data can be sorted in ascending or descending order by clicking on the heading of the column for which sorting is desired. In this section, the standard text output description is followed by a description of the optional HTML formatted output. The HTML formatted output can be deactivated by entering HTM=NO in the parameter data section.
Warning
The HTMLformatted output is no longer actively developed, and the output files created with it may therefore not include recently added capabilities or changes. For example, the fission rate mesh tally and some CE TSUNAMI edits are not included in the HTML output.
8.1.5.1. Program verification information
Program verification information Fig. 8.1.94 is printed after the header page. It lists the name of the program, the date the load module was created, the library that contains the load module, the computer code name from the configuration control table, and the revision number. The job name, date, and time of execution are also printed. This information may be used for quality assurance purposes.
The program verification information is the first page shown in the KENO HTML output, after selecting KENO from the SCALE HTML index page. This page can also be displayed by selecting the Program Verification Information link under the General Information submenu and is shown in Fig. 8.1.94.
8.1.5.2. Tables of parameter data
The first two tables printed by KENO list the numeric parameters and logical parameters used in the problem. The user should always verify that the parameter data block was entered as desired. An example of numeric parameters table is shown in Fig. 8.1.95. An example of the logical parameters table is shown in Fig. 8.1.96.
For the logical parameter data table, messages concerning the parameter data may be printed at the bottom of the table. If the problem is being restarted, the title of the parent case is printed at the bottom of the table. If the restart title or messages are not printed, the bottom section of the table is omitted.
8.1.5.3. Unprocessed geometry input data
This printout is optional and is usually used to locate code difficulties, to show all the geometry input data when only part of it is used in the problem, or to show the order in which units were entered. It is considered debug information and is printed only if PGM=YES is specified in the parameter input data. Standard KENO use does not require printing these data because the processed geometry that is used in the problem is always printed. See Sect. 8.1.5.56.9 and Sect. 8.1.5.15 for examples of the standard printed KENO geometry data.
When the unprocessed geometry input is printed, the problem title is located at the top of the page, followed by the heading “GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION INPUT.” The regiondependent geometry information is then printed. If the problem contains a unit orientation array, the problem title is printed again, followed by the unit orientation. This is followed by a statement affirming the completion of the data input.
8.1.5.4. Table of data sets used in the problem
This table is the third table of data printed by KENO. It should be carefully scrutinized to verify the desired data set name is associated with the proper unit number and volume. An example of this table is shown in Fig. 8.1.97.
This table lists unit numbers specified in the parameter data or that are defaulted in the code, along with the information pertinent to them. This information is given in the following order, left to right: (1) the keyword used in the parameter data to define the unit number, (2) the unit number, (3) the data set name, (4) the name of the volume on which the data set resides, and (5) the type of data contained on the data set. This table can be useful for quality assurance purposes. Information for units for which default values have not been overridden is printed even though they may not be used in the problem. Information for every unit specified in the parameter data is also printed. Units 8 and 10 are the directaccess devices, and their unit numbers are fixed within the code. When this table is printed, Unit 10 has not yet been defined. This causes its data set names to be listed as FT10F001 or as “UNKNOWN” on some systems. If KENO is run as part of a CSAS sequence, this table will include two entries for Unit 35: one for binary input data, and one for read restart data.
8.1.5.5. Table of additional information
The fourth table of data printed by KENO contains additional information determined from the input data. An example of this table is shown in Fig. 8.1.98.
This table should be used to verify the problem input. The NUMBER OF ENERGY GROUPS for a multigroup problem is read either from the Monte Carlo formatted library, identified by the keyword XSC and the unit function name MIXED CROSS SECTIONS from the Table of Data Sets in Sect. 8.1.5.4, or from the restart unit, identified by the keyword RST and the unit function name, READ RESTART DATA. The NO. OF FISSION SPECTRUM SOURCE GROUP is the number of different energy groups for which a fission spectrum is defined. In the present version, this number should always be 1. The NO. OF SCATTERING ANGLES IN XSECS is the number of scattering angles to be used in processing the cross sections. The default value is 3, and it may be overridden by specifying the parameter SCT= in the mixing table input. One scattering angle yields P_{1} cross sections, two scattering angles yield P_{3} cross sections, three scattering angles yield P_{5} cross sections, etc.
The NUMBER OF MIXTURES USED is the number of different mixtures (media) used in the geometry data used by the problem. This may be less than the total number of different mixtures specified in the geometry data if portions of the geometry data are not used in the problem.
The NUMBER OF BIAS IDS USED is the number of different biasing regions used in the problem. This will always be one unless a biasing data block is entered.
The NUMBER OF DIFFERENTIAL ALBEDOS USED is the number of different differential albedo reflectors used in the problem. This will always be zero unless the boundary condition data specify the use of differential albedo reflection on one or more faces of the system as described in Sect. 8.1.5.8. The BOUNDARY CONDITION data printed in this table should also be checked. The number of different differential albedos specified on the faces should be consistent with the NUMBER OF DIFFERENTIAL ALBEDOS USED. Specular, mirror, vacuum, and periodic are not differential albedos. Several different keywords may be used to specify the same differential albedo.
The TOTAL INPUT GEOMETRY REGIONS is the number of geometry regions specified in the problem input. This excludes UNIT label and comments provided using COM=, but it includes the array boundary description. It excludes the automatic reflector description, but it includes the geometry regions generated by it. The NUMBER OF GEOMETRY REGIONS USED is the number of geometry regions used in the problem. It may be less than or equal to the TOTAL INPUT GEOMETRY REGIONS. The LARGEST GEOMETRY UNIT NUMBER is the largest unit number defined in the geometry data, including unused units and implicitly defined units. Implicitly defined unit numbers are created when a core boundary specification is not immediately preceded by a specification. The unit number is assigned by the code by adding one to the largest unit number encountered in the geometry region data. For example, if two such core boundary specifications are contained in a problem whose largest explicitly defined unit number is 7, then a unit number of 8 is assigned to the first one, and a unit number of 9 is assigned to the second one. A value of 9 would be printed for the LARGEST GEOMETRY UNIT NUMBER. The LARGEST ARRAY NUMBER is the largest array number specified in the array data.
USE LATTICE GEOMETRY is determined by the logical flag that indicates whether or not the problem is a single unit problem. This should be YES for any problem that is not a single unit problem and NO for a single unit problem. By definition, a single unit problem does not use array data in any form. Sect. 8.1.5.14 describes array data. The GLOBAL ARRAY NUMBER is the number of the array designated as the global, overall, or universal array. The global array can be thought of as the array that defines the overall system.
The NUMBER OF UNITS IN THE GLOBAL X/Y/Z DIR. defines the size of the global array in terms of the number of units that are located along the edge of the array boundaries in the X/Y/Z directions. For a single unit, all three of these should be zero. For a simple 1 \(\times\) 1 \(\times\) 1 array consisting of one unit type, all three of these numbers should be 1.
USE NESTED HOLES is set YES if holes are nested deeper than one level.
NUMBER OF HOLES is the number of HOLES that are entered in the geometry region data.
The MAXIMUM HOLE NESTING LEVEL is the deepest level of hole nesting.
USE NESTED ARRAYS is set YES if arrays are nested deeper than one level.
The NUMBER OF ARRAYS USED is the number of array descriptions actually used in the problem description.
MAXIMUM ARRAY NESTING LEVEL is the deepest level of array nesting.
BOUNDARY CONDITIONs are printed near the bottom of the table. They show the type of boundary condition that is applied to each surface of the system. These should all be VACUUM unless albedo boundary conditions are applied to one or more faces of the system. One should refer to the NUMBER OF DIFFERENTIAL ALBEDOS USED, as discussed previously in the description of this table of information.
The outer boundary of the global unit can consist of multiple shapes in KENOVI geometry. For such a case, BOUNDARY CONDITIONS are printed for all shapes enclosing the global unit as shown in Fig. 8.1.99.
Note
Boundary condition edit in Table of additional information does not list the surfaces added to each boundary body by CHORD operations.
8.1.5.6. Cross section data edits for the continuous energy mode
Unlike with the multigroup mode, KENO with continuousenergy mode loads each nuclide data directly from libraries. When loading data, Doppler broadening temperature correction (controlled by DBX parameter, see Sect. 8.1.7.2.10 for further details) is performed by default, on all nuclide cross sections, if the requested temperature is more than 4 K from the library temperature. If the Doppler broadening temperature correction is not enabled, then the nuclides’ data are loaded from libraries with the closest temperature. When running KENO standalone, material temperatures can be entered by the TEMP parameter in the MIXT data block. When running KENO as part of a SCALE sequence, all material temperatures can be entered by each composition data definition in the COMPOSITION data block.
Cross sections data edits in KENO output summarize the data setup in the continuousenergy calculations. Examples of this summary are given in Fig. 8.1.100 and Fig. 8.1.101 for a sample continuousenergy calculation with and without Doppler broadening temperature correction.
This edit starts with printing the thermal energy cutoff utilized in the problem that, followed by a diagnostic edit, notifies that inverse velocity calculations have completed. In the next section, nuclide id, temperature at which data are being processed, and name of temperatureindependent and dependent cross section data files loaded are printed. When Doppler broadening temperature correction has been enabled (DBX= 2), one of the temperaturedependent data files used in this correction is printed as shown in Fig. 8.1.100. This is one of the caveats of this edit since full details of broadening are not listed here. Some messages from the cross section data loader related to broadening can be shown in the message file. After this section, nuclides for which DBRC data loaded are listed if DBRC has been enabled in the calculations. Finally, elapsed time required for data processing (loading + broadening) is reported.
When Doppler broadening temperature correction is turned off (DBX= 0), KENO loads the temperaturedependent data from libraries with the closest temperature and prints their names as shown in Fig. 8.1.101. KENO always notifies the user with a warning message as shown in Fig. 8.1.101 if there is a difference between the temperature at which data would be loaded and the closest temperature for which data has been loaded.
Note
Mixture temperatures printed in the mixing table output edit discussed in the next section are the userdefined temperatures at which cross section data processing has been requested. On the contrary, nuclide temperatures printed in the mixing table output edit show the exact temperatures utilized at which nuclide data are processed for the current calculation.
8.1.5.7. Mixing table data edits
If LIB= is entered in the KENO parameter data and a mixing table data block is provided to KENO, mixing table data will be printed. This output edit is not considered optional because it cannot be suppressed if the necessary data are present. There are some differences between the mixing table data edits for both multigroup and continuousenergy modes.
8.1.5.7.1. Multigroup mode mixing table data edit
Sample mixing table data for multigroup mode are shown in Fig. 8.1.102. In the HTML output, the mixing table data can be accessed with the Mixing Table link in the Input Data section.
The data printed in this table include the problem title, the number of scattering angles, and the cross section message threshold. Data are then printed for each mixture. First the mixture number, density, and temperature are printed, followed by a table of the nuclides which make up the mixture. This table contains the following data: nuclide ID number, nuclide mixture ID number, atom density, weight fraction of nuclide in mixture, ZA number, atomic weight, temperature, and nuclide title. Mixture temperature is the same as the nuclides’ temperatures for the multigroup calculations. After all mixture data have been printed, a table of nuclides and descriptive titles is printed for all nuclides included in the mixtures. If extra 1D cross sections were specified in the problem (see X1D=, Sect. 8.1.3.3), the extra 1D cross section IDs will be printed under the heading “1D CROSS SECTION ARRAY ID NUMBERS.” If \(\bar{\nu}\) is to be calculated (parameter NUB=YES), six MT numbers will be printed. The MT number for the total cross section (\(\Sigma_{\mathrm{T}}\)) is 1; the MT number for the sum of the transfer array normalized by \(\Sigma_{\mathrm{T}}\) is 2002; the MT number for the normalized fissionproduct cross section \(\left(v \Sigma_{\mathrm{f}} / \Sigma_{\mathrm{t}}\right)\) is 1452; the MT number for the normalized absorption cross section \(\left(\sum_{\mathrm{abs}} / \Sigma_{\mathrm{T}}\right)\) is 27; the MT number for the normalized fission cross section \(\left(\Sigma_{\mathrm{f}} / \Sigma_{\mathrm{T}}\right)\) is 18; and the MT number for the fission spectrum (\(\chi\)) is 1018. \(\chi\) is summed and normalized to 1.0. Other MT numbers in this list have been specified by the user. If the number of blocks on the direct access data set are insufficient to hold the cross section data, a message is printed stating THE NUMBER OF DIRECT ACCESS BLOCKS ON UNIT_____ HAS BEEN INCREASED TO ____. If the problem is to write a restart data set (parameter RES=), a message is printed stating that restart information was written, and the restart I/O unit number is specified. This is followed by a statement of the number of I/Os used in preparing the cross sections. The user should examine the mixing table carefully to verify that the proper nuclides are specified for the proper mixtures and that all the data are correct. The mixing table is printed in subroutine PRTMIX.
Note
See Sect. 8.1.4.4.4 for the details for the warning message printed in mixing table edit.
8.1.5.7.2. Continuousenergy mode mixing table data edit
In continuous energy mode, each mixture data is printed immediately after the problem title. For a mixture, first the mixture number, density, and temperature are printed, followed by a table of the nuclides which make up this mixture. Format of the nuclide edits in this table is same as the one used for multigroup mode, it contains the following data: nuclide ID number, nuclide mixture ID number, atom density, weight fraction of nuclide in mixture, ZA number, atomic weight, temperature, and nuclide title.
Sample mixing table data for continuousenergy mode are shown in Fig. 8.1.103. The nuclides’ titles are relatively short compared to those for the multigroup mode since these data are not provided by AMPX, and KENO creates a short title while loading each nuclide data from the continuousenergy libraries.
Unlike the multigroup calculations, mixture temperature may be different from the nuclides’ temperatures for the continuousenergy calculations if Doppler broadening temperature correction is not enabled (setting DBX= to 0 disables the temperature correction) because the nuclides are loaded from libraries with the closest temperature. Fig. 8.1.104 is a sample mixing table data edits for such a case.
8.1.5.8. Albedo cross section correspondence
Printing the albedo cross section correspondence tables is optional. The headings for the tables are printed in subroutine CORRE, and then subroutine RATIO prints the data. These tables are printed only if PAX=YES is specified in the parameter data as described in Sect. 8.1.3.3. Examples of these tables are shown in Fig. 8.1.105 and Fig. 8.1.106.
The table shown in Fig. 8.1.105 contains, left to right, the cross section energy group, the lower and upper lethargy bounds, the corresponding albedo energy groups, and the cumulative probability associated with each albedo energy group for choosing the albedo energy group corresponding to the cross section energy group. The table shown in Fig. 8.1.106 is the inverse of the table shown in Fig. 8.1.105. It provides the cumulative probabilities for choosing the cross section energy group corresponding to the albedo energy group. The information in these tables is automatically generated by KENO.
8.1.5.9. 1D macroscopic cross sections
The decision to print the 1D mixture cross sections is optional. They are printed only if XS1=YES is specified in the parameter data. When the 1D cross sections are to be printed, they are printed a group at a time for each mixture. The 1D mixture cross sections for a mixture are shown in Fig. 8.1.107.
When the 1D mixture cross sections are printed, the problem title is printed at the top of the page. The mixture ID, mixture index, and mixture number are then printed. ID is the mixture number from the mixing table, and mixture index is the index used to reference it and mixture number is its identifier. This step is followed by a heading to identify the different 1D cross sections. GROUP is the energy group, sigt is the total cross section for the mixture, sigs is the nonabsorption probability, siga is the absorption probability, signu is the production probability, chi is the fission spectrum, mwa1 is the pointer for the first position of the cross sections for the energy group, mwa2 is the pointer for the last position of the cross sections for the energy group, and mwa3 contains the group for the transfer corresponding to the first position. SUM is the sum of the absorption probability and the nonabsorption probability. The absorption probability is defined as the absorption cross section divided by the total cross section. The nonabsorption probability is the sum of the grouptogroup transfers for this group, divided by the total cross section. The production probability is defined as the fission production cross section divided by the total cross section \(\left(v \Sigma_{f} / \Sigma_{\mathrm{T}}\right)\). The nonabsorption probability and the production probability are not true probabilities in that they may be greater than 1. This is because the nonabsorption probability has the (n,2n) transfer array summed into the total transfer array twice, and the (n,3n) is summed three times, etc.
8.1.5.10. Extra 1d cross sections
Printing the extra 1D cross sections is optional. They are printed if P1D=YES is specified in the parameter data. Extra 1D cross sections are not used in KENO unless NUB=YES is specified in the parameter data or the user has altered the code to access and utilize other 1D cross sections. If NUB=YES is specified, the extra 1D cross section is the fission cross section, which is used to calculate the average number of neutrons per fission. This is printed only for fissile mixtures as shown in Fig. 8.1.107. The fission cross section heading follows the table of 1D cross sections. The fission cross section heading is XSEC ID 18, and it follows the table of 1D cross sections.
8.1.5.11. 2D macroscopic cross sections
The decision to print the 2D mixture cross sections is optional. They are printed only if XS2=YES is specified in the parameter data. They are printed after the 1D cross sections for the mixture. A heading is printed, followed by the transfer data. An example of the 2D mixture cross sections is given in Fig. 8.1.108.
8.1.5.12. Probabilities and angles
Printing the probabilities and angles is optional. They are printed if the number of scattering angles is greater than zero and XAP=YES is specified in the parameter data. Examples of the probabilities are shown in Fig. 8.1.109. Examples of the angles are shown in Fig. 8.1.110. If the grouptogroup transfer for a mixture is isotropic, the first angle for that transfer will be set to 2.0 as a flag to the code.
8.1.5.13. Energy boundaries
KENO codes in the previous SCALE versions supported only single energy group boundaries used in all tally calculations. The energy group boundaries were obtained from the multigroup library used by transport process if the calculation mode is multigroup. These energy bounds may not be overridden by users in multigroup mode. In continuousenergy mode, energy group boundaries were defaulted to the library structure read from the SCALE 252group multigroup library. The user could override the default energy boundaries either by defining the number of energy groups with NGP parameter, or by entering the energy points in energy data input block.
In SCALE 6.3, KENO codes can store multiple energy group boundaries; each may be used for different tallies. However, this capability is not enabled for standalone KENO calculations. If KENO is run as part of a CSAS or a TRITON sequence, then multiple energy boundaries can be entered in the definitions data input block available for these sequences (see Sect. 2.1.4.2.1).
Energy boundaries output edit always prints DEFAULT energy boundaries that are used in all tally calculations if it has not been otherwise requested. In multigroup mode, DEFAULT energy boundaries are always read from the multigroup library used by transport, and it cannot be overridden by the users. An example of energy boundaries output edit printed by a standalone multigroup KENO calculation is given in Fig. 8.1.111.
In continuousenergy mode, DEFAULT energy boundaries are defaulted to the library group structure of the SCALE 252group library and can be overridden by (1) setting the number of energy groups with NGP parameter as shown in Example 8.1.44 and Example 8.1.45, (2) entering all energy points in energy data block Example 8.1.46, or (3) entering energy boundaries in the definitions data block (valid when running KENO codes as part of a sequence, see Sect. 2.1.4.2.1 for more details).
...
read parameter
...
NGP=11
end parameter
...
...
read parameter
...
NGP=8
end parameter
...
...
read energy
2.e7 1.e5 1.e1 0.65 1.e4
end energy
...
Three examples of energy boundaries output edits for continuousenergy KENO calculations are given in the Fig. 8.1.112, Fig. 8.1.113, and Fig. 8.1.114. In the first example, the energy boundaries constructed with having 11 equal lethargy intervals by setting NGP=11 overwrites the DEFAULT energy boundaries. Fig. 8.1.113 shows the energy group output edits for a case in which the DEFAULT energy boundaries are overridden by the energy boundaries read from the SCALE 8 group test library that was provided by setting NGP=8. And the DEFAULT energy boundaries are overridden in the last example whose output edit shown in Fig. 8.1.114 by reading the energy boundaries from the energy data input block.
8.1.5.14. Array summary
The arrays that are used in the problem are summarized in the table shown in Fig. 8.1.115. This table is printed whenever more than one array is used in the problem.
The ARRAY NUMBER is the number by which the array is designated in the input data. The number of units in the X, Y, and Z directions is listed for each array. The NESTING LEVEL indicates the level of nesting for each array. The global, overall, or universe array is flagged by the word GLOBAL. The global array should always appear at the first nesting level. Arrays that have been placed in the global reflector by using holes should also appear at the first nesting level. A nesting level of one is the highest or first nesting levels. The larger the number in the nesting level column, the deeper the nesting level will be.
8.1.5.15. Geometry data edits
8.1.5.15.1. KENO V.a geometry edit
The geometry region data used by the problem are always printed and cannot be suppressed. They should be carefully examined by the user to verify the mixture number, bias ID, and geometry specifications used in the problem. If geometry region data are entered but are not referenced in the unit orientation array data, they will not be printed here. An example would be to enter geometry region data describing Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 and to use only Units 1, 3, and 4 in the unit orientation array. Then the geometry region data for Unit 2 will not be printed. An example of the KENO V.a geometry region printout for a problem is given in Fig. 8.1.116.
The problem title and a heading are printed at the top of each page. REGION is the region number within a unit. Each unit has its regions numbered sequentially, beginning with one. MEDIA NUM is the mixture number or mixture ID that occupies the volume defined by the region. BIAS ID is the bias ID that corresponds to the desired set of weight average for biasing the region. The unit number is printed at the top of each unit’s geometry region description near the center of the page. The data printed for each geometry region include (1) the region number relative to the unit (numbered sequentially within the unit), (2) the shape of the geometry region, (3) the mixture ID of the material within the volume defined by the region, (4) the bias ID to define the average weight of a neutron in the region, and (5) the dimensions defining the outer boundaries of the geometry region. If additional geometry surrounds an array, a heading is printed stating: UNIT ____ EXTERNAL TO LATTICE ____. The lattice number is the number of the array that is surrounded by the specified geometry. The unit number is the unit that contains the specified geometry. In the case of an external reflector for the global array, the unit number is assigned by the code.
8.1.5.15.2. KENOVI geometry edit
The geometry region data utilized by the problem are printed and cannot be suppressed. They should be carefully examined by the user to verify the mixture number, bias ID, and geometry specifications used in the problem. If geometry region data are input but are not referenced in the unit orientation array data, they will not be printed here. An example would be to input geometry region data describing Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 and to utilize only Units 1, 3, and 4 in the unit orientation array. Then the geometry region data for Unit 2 will not be printed. An example of the geometry region printout for a problem is given in Fig. 8.1.117 and Fig. 8.1.118.
First, a table of geometry parameters for the problem is printed. This specifies the overall size of the problem, number of components in the problem, and the size of the array needed to store the geometry. Next, the quadratic equations by unit are printed. The problem title and a heading are printed at the top of each page. The unit number followed by the GEOMETRY data for that unit is then printed. Each geometry record type used in the unit, numbered in the order they appear in the unit, is printed out. Following each geometry record type is the set of quadratic equations that describe the input geometry for that geometry record. The CONTENTS data, consisting of four columns, are then listed in the order they appear in the problem. The first column contains the content keyword. The second column contains the media/hole/array number. The third column labeled IMP contains the bias ID number if the content keyword is MEDIA. Otherwise, this column is blank. The fourth column contains t